University of the Philippines College of Education Educational Technology Department EDUC190 – Computers in Education Digital Divide Ferdinand B. Pitagan, PhD Professor of Education
Sharing your experience • What kinds? – mobile phone, iPod, Wiki? Blogs (facebook, mixi..)? Skype? etc. • For what? • How often? • individual differences?
Digital haves - Info rich Access Skills Knowledge Attitude The Gap Digital not haves - Info poor ICT: information and communications technology
Digital haves - Info rich Nations Generations Genders Ethnic groups “Education” Economic levels Social status Languages A series of Gaps Digital not haves - Info poor
Evolution of Digital Technologies • 1) Provide opportunities • 2) Create problems
Digital Technologies Digital Divide Digital Opportunities Changes in Society Education (Policies, Practices)
Why Digital Divide is an important issue….
Digital Divide a deepening of existing forms of exclusion Unemployed, poor, housebound, disabled, less educated, minorities Women/girls
Internet World Statistics (2009) http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm
less than 3 out of every 100 Africans 1 out of every 2 inhabitants of the G8 countries top 20 countries (Internet bandwidth) ---80% of all Internet users 30 countries with an Internet penetration of less than 1% 429 million Internet users in G8 444 million Internet users in non-G8 Mobile = 34% of the world’s total mobile users from G8 countries – 14% world population Digital Divide at A Glance (ITU figures) G8- Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the UK and the US
Cultural factors Social factors (gender, race..) Digital Divide Other factors Economic factors
High-income : 65.5% Upper middle income : 7.8% Lower middle income : 21.5% Low-income : 5.6% Internet Users by Income level of country (2003) Asahi Statistics p.189
UCLA World Internet Project (2004)- Internet Users - Britain men 63.6; women 55.0Germany men 50.4; women 41.7Hungary men 20.3; women 15.1Italy men 41.7; women 21.5Japan men 54.7; women 46.2Korea men 67.8; women 53.8Macao men 37.8; women 28.8Singapore men 47.2; women 34.0Spain men 46.4; women 27.2Sweden men 67.7; women 64.4Taiwan men 25.1; women 23.5United States men 73.1; women 69.0
“…86 percent of women ages 18 to 29 were online, compared with 80 percent of men in the same age group. “…among the older group, those age 65 and older, 34 percent of men are online, compared with 21 percent of women.” USA, Washingtonpost Thursday, December 29, 2005
White Paper on information and Telecommunications in Japan http://www.johotsusintokei.soumu.go.jp/whitepaper/eng/WP2002/press_information01.pdf
Japan Culture! Language non-alphabet writing) Age Handwriting Computer anxiety Nigate-ishiki Computer experience Education! Digital divide
Japan Regional gap Internet Use via Mobiles Generation gap - Old people Housewives People with disabilities
Not easy to stop/lessen gaps If we don’t do anything about it…. Need for awareness Need for strong policies Need for international collaboration Need for education
World Summit on the Information Society • http://www.itu.int/wsis/tunis/newsroom/stats/Building-digital-bridges_2005.pdf • International Collaboration • “UNDP etc – e Vietnamese Village” • “Japan – Asian Broadband Project” • 2. NGOs/Public sectors • “Brazil – Tele-centers” • 3. National Policies • “Egypt – E-readiness Plan” • “Korean Agency for Digital Opportunity” • 4. Business Involvement “Sudan – SUDATEL” • #### Individual efforts
World Summit on the Information Society • - 8 key areas for policy suggested- • Access for all to HW & SW • Changed roles of teachers/learners • Promoting lifelong learning • Quality assurance • Enhanced citizenship • Brokering services and agencies • Support, encourage & direct research • Change in role of policy-maker in education
Free discussion - What do you think? “Teachers should be trained and retrained to effectively and efficiently use ICT in teaching and management!” – from digital divide/opportunities perspective • Singapore and Korea • Training, retraining every 3 yrs • 30% of teaching hours/curriculum • - ICT use in teacher evaluation • - All classrooms connected to the high-speed Internet
Digital Opportunities ICT, helping to overcome some forms of exclusion Distance learning to remote areas Village tele-centers with ICT Maori education in NZ
Digital technologies Lifelong society
Education Youth, prepare for changing world Adults, enable to participate in this world Everyone, continue to update
Do you see any Digital Divide in Education??
Digital Divide in Education • Digital divide in investment (input) • Digital divide in ICT use (process) • Digital divide in people (output)
1. Digital Dividein Investment Input Factors Hardware, Materials (software), Connectivity; Integration of ICT in curriculum; Supports; Policies
“why is it important to understand and lesson digital divide in investment in formal education?”
“Schools or educational institutions can play a compensatory equalising role.”
2. Digital Dividein ICT Use Process Factors Different approaches to ICT use - Used for advanced applications and thinking? - Used for basic skill training? - Used for computer games?
28.1 25.4 Administrative communication by email 13.0 22.6 Q & A by email 13.8 14.3 Presentation tools 12.0 Students report submission by email 13.7 9.3 Posting instructional materials on web 16.3 used always 0.8 used often 0.9 Posting lecture video on web 0 20 40 60 80 100 University Faculty’s Use of ICT in TeachingSource: Japan, NIME (2003)
As a presentation tool?As a simple communication tool?As an administrative tool?As a problem-solving tool?As a creation tool?As a research tool?
Gaps between teachers and students,among teachers and among studentsin terms ofSkills & KnowledgeWays of using ICTAttitude
3. Digital Dividein Different Groups Human (Outcome) Factors Digital literacy? - ICT skills / knowledge - confidence - competencies “What is more important is to empower people……..” (Week2-reading#1 “Learning to bridge the DD - p.56)”
ICT Skills (University, Perception)Source: NIME (2003) “I do not have adequate ICT skills and knowledge” - More faculty than students - More older people than younger ones - More people in humanities and social sciencesthan those in natural sciences and engineering
Some policies (Education) • USA – “E-rate program” • EU- “eLearning Action Plan” • Japan - “Millennium Project”, • “E-Japan Strategy” • 4. Romania – “Multipurpose Community • Telecenters”
Digital divide in informal learning (more learning happens outside schools) Home differences Differences at work Differences in communities
Digital Divide • Understanding the issue • from various perspectives • As a teacher in the future • As a university student • “To make ICT used and useful”
Group Activity DIGITAL DIVIDE in the PHILIPPINES
NEXT MEETING Approaches in using media for instruction