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Enhancing Communication and Developing Collaboration Between Healthcare Teams

Enhancing Communication and Developing Collaboration Between Healthcare Teams

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Enhancing Communication and Developing Collaboration Between Healthcare Teams

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  1. Enhancing Communication and Developing Collaboration Between Healthcare Teams Celeste Gray RN, MSN

  2. Objectives • Identify the current healthcare system and how lack of communication and collaboration is affecting the patient • Define communication and collaboration in the healthcare system • Identify barriers to communication and collaboration • Describe ways communication and collaboration can assist in the development of effective teams for the safety of the patient

  3. Today’s Healthcare Setting • Communication, collaboration, and teamwork do not always occur in clinical settings • Social, relational, and organizational structures contribute to communication failures • Organizational structure is a large contributor to adverse clinical events and outcomes • Priorities of patient care differs between members of the healthcare team

  4. Today’s Healthcare System • Involve numerous interfaces and patient handoffs among multiple healthcare workers with various training and education levels • During a 4 day hospital stay a patient may interact with up to 50 different employees

  5. Today’s Healthcare Setting • More than 1/5th of patients hospitalized in the U.S. reported • Hospital system problems • Staff provides conflicting information • Staff unsure of which physician is in charge of their care

  6. Study of Physician and Nurse Disruptive Behaviors

  7. Bridge the Gap • Teach communication techniques and tools available for effective communication • Build collaboration and effective teams through role clarity • Review process so if there is a lack of communication and collaboration patient care is not affected • Build a culture around collaboration

  8. Definition of Communication • The imparting or interchange of thoughts, opinions, or information by speech, writing, or signs • 93% of communication is non-verbal which includes body language, attitude, and tone • 7% are actual words said

  9. What does Lack of Communication Cause? • Faulty and incomplete exchange of information • Professionals ignore potential red flags and clinical discrepancies • Creates situations where medical errors can occur • These errors have the potential to cause severe injury or unexpected patient death

  10. Barriers to Effective Communication • Health professionals tend to work autonomous • Efforts to improve health care safety and quality are often jeopardized

  11. Personal values and expectations Personality differences Hierarchy Disruptive behavior Culture and ethnicity Generational differences Gender Historical inter-professional and intra-professional rivalries Differences in accountability, payment, and rewards Concerns regarding clinical responsibility Differences in language and jargon Differences in schedules and professional routines Varying levels of preparation, qualifications, and status Differences in requirements, regulations, and norms of professional education Fears of diluted professional identity Complexity of care Emphasis on rapid decision making Common Barriers

  12. Communication Styles • Aggressive • Passive • Assertive

  13. Communication Skills Closed minded Poor listeners Cant see others point of view Interrupts/Monopolizes conversation Beliefs “Everyone should be like me” “I am never wrong” Characteristics Achieve goals at other’s expense Bully Patronizing and sarcastic Behaviors Put down Do not think they are wrong Bossy Overpowers Know it all Doesn’t show appreciation Feelings Angry Hostile Frustrated Impatient Nonverbal Cues Point fingers Frown Glare Loud tone rigid posture Verbal Cues “You must” “Just do it” Verbally abusive Problem Solving Mechanisms Must always win a argument Operates in a win/lose paradigm Aggressive Style

  14. Communication Style Indirect Always agrees Doesn’t speak up Hesitant Beliefs “Don’t express true feelings” Don’t make waves” Don’t disagree” “Other have more rights” Characteristics Apologetic Behaviors Avoid conflict Asks permission unnecessarily Complains instead of taking action Have difficulty implementing plans Feelings Powerlessness Wonder why they do not get credit for good work Others are better Nonverbal Cues Fidgets Nods head often and smiles No eye contact Low volume Verbal Cues Monotone voice Problem Solving Mechanisms Avoid and ignore the problem Withdraw from the situation Passive Style

  15. Communication skills Effective, active listener States limits/sets expectations Does not judge Considers other’s feelings Beliefs Believes all are valuable Handle all situations as best as possible even if they do not win All have rights and opinions Characteristics Self aware Trust themselves and others Open and flexible Proactive Behaviors Fair/consistent Action oriented Feelings Enthusiastic Even tempered Positive Nonverbal Cues Open and natural gestures Direct eye contact Relaxed Vocal volume appropriate Verbal Cues Use “I” statements Ask for options Problem Solving Mechanisms Negotiate, bargain and trade Confronts problems as they happen Do not let negative feelings build up Assertive Style

  16. When Aggressive Style is Essential When a decision has to be made quickly During emergencies When you know you are right and that fact is crucial

  17. When Passive Style is Essential • When an issue is minor • When the problem caused by conflict are greater then the conflict itself • When emotions are running high and time is needed to gain and regain perspective • When the other’s position is impossible to change for all practical purposed (government policies)

  18. Effective Communication • Positive outcomes • Improved information flow • More effective interventions • Improved safety • Enhanced employee morale • Increased patient and family satisfaction • Decreased length of stay • Improved quality

  19. Have I seen and assessed this patient myself before I call? Do I have at hand The chart? List of current meds, IV fluids, and labs? Most recent vital signs? If reporting lab work, date and time this test was done and results of previous tests for comparisons? Code status? Have I read the most recent MD progress notes and notes from the nurse who worked the shift ahead of me? Have I discussed this call with my charge nurse? When ready to call Remember to identify self, unit, patient, room number. Know the admitting diagnosis and date of admission. Briefly state the problem, what it is, when it happened or started, and how severe it is What do I expect to happen as a result of this call? Document whom you spoke to, time of call, and summary of conversation. Engage and treat physician with respect. Guidelines for Nurses

  20. Standardized Communication Tools • SBAR • Situation • Background • Assessment • Recommendation

  21. SBAR • Framework for communication between members of the healthcare team about the patient’s condition • Easy to remember tool for framing all conversation especially critical requiring immediate attention and action. • Easy and focused way to set expectations between members of the team for what will be communicated and how • Develop desired critical thinking skills

  22. Definition of Collaboration in Healthcare • Health care professionals assuming complementary roles and cooperatively working together, sharing responsibility for problem solving and making decisions to formulate and carry out plans for patient care

  23. Effective Teams • Characterized by trust, respect, and working together for the good of the goal

  24. Barriers to Fostering a Collaborative Team Environment • Additional time • Perceived loss of autonomy • Lack of confidence or trust in decisions of others • Clashing perceptions • Territorialism • Lack of awareness of the education, knowledge, and skills held by colleagues from other disciplines

  25. Create a knowledge-based, patient-centered approach to care delivery. Improve documentation and interdisciplinary communication. Sharpen critical thinking skills including new understandings of organizing and accomplishing work activities. Maximize use of resources through awareness Establish a rational framework for delegation and decisions that maximizes skill mix. Increase appreciation for the complexity of clinical care. Create of platform to engage the staff in implementing unit-specific responses to organizational initiatives. Role Clarity and Work Alignment

  26. Understanding Between Healthcare Workers • Ongoing initiatives for the development of a cooperative agenda to benefit patient care • Share at least one similar characteristic • A personalized desire to learn • Share at least one value • To meet the needs of the patient

  27. Open communication Non-punitive environment Clear direction Clear and known roles and tasks for team members Respectful atmosphere Shared responsibility for team success Appropriate balance of member participation for the task at hand Acknowledgment and processing of conflict Clear specifications regarding authority and accountability Clear and known decision making procedures Regular and routine communication and information sharing Enabling environment, including access to needed resources Mechanism to evaluate outcomes and adjust accordingly Successful Teamwork Model

  28. Crew Resource Management (Aviation) • CRM can be defined as a management system which makes optimum use of all available resources - equipment, procedures and people - to promote safety and enhance the efficiency of operations.

  29. CRM in Aviation • Team • Heavy emphasis on team training and team building behaviors • Each member of the crew has specific responsibilities for keeping the team intact and functioning so all important information is communicated in a timely and effective manner • All members of the team were expected to play an active role in the decision making process • Focused on the crucial roles and responsibilities of those who support the captain

  30. CRM in Aviation • Human factors • Aware of limitations of human performance • Teach to be acutely aware of fatigue and it effects on performance and decision making • Restrictions on the use of alcohol and strategies to optimize the use of caffeine for optimal sleep • The effects of life stressors on performance is openly discussed • “are you ok to fly today”

  31. CRM in Aviation • Standardization • Standardized procedures, maneuvers, and actions are ingrained in the culture • Everyone completes the task in the same manner • Teams can work together seamlessly and know exactly what the other members are doing • If someone fails to follow the standard it is investigated immediately

  32. CRM Aviation • Recurrent training and performance checking through simulation • Knowledge testing • Computerized and oral testing • Performance testing • Demonstration proficiency • Demonstrate how they work as a team when problem solving abnormalities • Performance under observation helps manage the natural anxiety that accompanies such an event • Practice recurrent training and performance checking at a minimum every 12 months

  33. CRM Aviation • Checklists • Live and die by checklists • Provides another measure of standardization • Adhere to checklists consistently and without question • Checklists are the backbone of the airline safety culture

  34. Healthcare • Hierarchy • Cultural road blocks to effective communication • Patients are in danger based on intense authority gradients existing within the nurse-physician dyads • Healthcare relationships are characterized not by open communication and team orientation but an emphasis on centralized power in decision making

  35. Healthcare • Missed meals • NL- stand for “No Lunch” • Cultured responded by offering compensation rather then fix the core issues • This can become part of a healthcare worker’s financial planning

  36. Healthcare • Fatigue • Research on the negative effects of fatigue on motor and cognitive performance is well documented • Multiple 12 hour shifts • Heavy physical work • Demanding, repetitive mental work • Safety sensitive work • Work requiring vigilance

  37. Healthcare • Task load • Task saturation • Multitasking is reaching unmanageable levels but demands precision and success

  38. Healthcare • Non-nursing functions • Required to take on tasks when other departments are short • Adds to task saturation • Interrupts nursing thought process • Places patients at risk

  39. Healthcare • Distractions • “Critical regime

  40. Healthcare • Standardization • Frame of reference • Serves to mitigate the unexpected • Allows to predict behavior in both routine and emergent circumstances

  41. Healthcare • Recurrent training and performance checklists • Staff are rarely are asked to go back to the classroom setting to review policy and procedure • Yearly competency is often set up as a formality and can be haphazard

  42. Establishing a Culture to Support Communication and Collaboration • Commitment needs to come from the top down and the bottom up which makes a statement about the way the organization does business • Behavioral Standards • Defects in communication that affect collaboration • Information exchange • Appreciation of roles and responsibility • Direct accountability for patient care

  43. Establishing a Culture to Support Communication and Collaboration • Develop and implement a standard set of behavior policies and procedures • Policies should be the same for all disciplines and service lines • Should become part of the medical staff bylaws with signed agreements • Standardized protocol outlining expected standards and the process for addressing disruptive behavior issues, recommendations, follow-up plans and action to be taken in the face of individual resistance of refusal to comply

  44. Establishing a Culture to Support Communication and Collaboration • Develop a process and encourage employees to report disruptive behavior • Address issues related to confidentiality, fear of retaliation, and the common feelings that there is a double standard and that nothing will get done • Reporting methods should be made easy and must be supported by a non-punitive environment • Ideally address the issue in real time

  45. Reporting Continued • Appropriate avenues for reporting • Reporting the incident to a superior • Incident reports • Complaint or suggestion box • Reporting directly to a task force or interdisciplinary committee with assigned responsibilities for addressing the issues • Maintain confidentiality and reduce risk of retaliation • Provide recognition and assurance that the complaint will be addressed and actions will be taken • Response should be timely, appropriate, consistent, and provide necessary feedback and follow-up

  46. Establishing a Culture to Support Communication and Collaboration • Taking actions through appropriate intervention strategies • Education • Team dynamics • Communication skills • Phone etiquette • Assertiveness training • Diversity training • Conflict management • Stress management

  47. Intervention Strategies Continued • Focus sessions and counseling • Competency • All levels of the healthcare team

  48. Establishing a Culture to Support Communication and Collaboration • Focused team trainings programs • Training on fostering an environment of trust and respect • Accountability • Situational awareness • Open communication • Assertiveness • Shared decision making • Feedback • Interdisciplinary CRM training

  49. Establishing a Culture to Support Communication and Collaboration • Identifying clinical champions or early adopters promotes the importance of appropriate behaviors, communication, and team collaboration • Champions can come from executive teams or through voluntary interests • Co-champions where physicians and nurses go through training together • Simulation • Committees

  50. Conclusion • Effective clinical practice can’t focus on technical only but must include human factors • Good communication encourages collaboration and helps prevent errors • Healthcare organizations must assess possible setups for poor communication and be diligent about offering programs and outlets to foster team collaboration