371 likes | 739 Vues
DOORS AND WINDOWS. DOORS : INTRODUCTION. A door is a solid barrier to a doorway or opening. Can be opened for access and closed to deny access for privacy and security. Serves as a thermal, acoustic(audio/sound) and fire barrier, also as a weather barrier as part of an external wall.
E N D
DOORS : INTRODUCTION • A door is a solid barrier to a doorway or opening. • Can be opened for access and closed to deny access for privacy and security. • Serves as a thermal, acoustic(audio/sound) and fire barrier, also as a weather barrier as part of an external wall.
A doorway is an opening in a wall or partition for access. A door frame is a frame or lining made of timber, metal or plastic, fixed in the doorway to which the door closes on hinges, pivots or runners. Doors are provided to give an access to the inside of the room of a building. Doors should be located that gives: -freedom of movement in and out of the room -Maximum use of accommodation in the room -Keeping privacy of the occupant.
Functions of a Door • Primary function :- Means of access • Secondary function:-Privacy Functional Requirements of Doors • Access • Strength • Security • Daylight • Ventilation • Thermal Insulation • Weather Resistance • Fire resistance
ACCESS • -Adequate access relies on: • Width • clearance Entry door requires a minimum 850mm clear width (measured from open door leaf to latch side of frame).
STRENGTH -External door are often subjected to harsh treatment -Element that can increase the strength of door:- **Fire door, capable of keeping out fire and smoke long enough. **Have a door with reinforced or impact resistant. • SECURITY • -The degree of security will depends on:- • Selecting a door & frame of suitable strength. • Providing suitable hanging & locking mechanism. • Locating the door in the least vulnerable position.
DAYLIGHT • -Depend largely on: • Size and shape of door • Position of the door • Effects on internal & external reflection VENTILATION -Small Building Regulation 1984 require habitable rooms to be ventilated by an area of openable door/window at least 10% of the room floor area.
THERMAL INSULATION -All doors shall be provided with thermal insulation. WEATHER RESISTANCE -Designed to prevent the passage of water to the inside of the frame. FIRE RESISTANCE -Means of escape -Have a specific period of fire resistance (min. 0.5 hours)
PLYWOOD TIMBER METALS MATERIALS OF DOOR CONCRETE GLASS
TIMBER -Most commonly used for domestic external door construction. -Good polish -Different types of mouldings can produce an attractive appearance. PLYWOOD -Useful for doors which have to made flush door METAL -Greater rigidity, life & fire resistance -for security purposes
CONCRETE -Used in areas where there is a danger of disintegration. GLASS -Used in panel door to admit light -Big openings provide good appearance
EXTERNAL DOOR • The external door provides access to the outside of a home or building. In fact, the front door or external door is the first impression someone gets of the house • Require more strength, provide security compare to internal door. • Most common used of timber door: • -Paneled door • -Flush door • -Boarded door • Metal door frequently used for buildings such as shops & office. • Standard sizes available: 1981 mm high x 762 or 838 mm width.
Paneled Door • Comprising a timber frame, a solid panel & a glass panel. • Objective of used: • -To obtain skeleton framework in which the tendency to shrinkage is reduced. • -To provide a pleasant appearance • The basic framework consist of: • -Stile at each side of the door (at least 10 cm wide) • -Horizontal top rail • -Bottom rail (15 cm wide) • -Intermediate rails • -’Mullions’ or ‘muntin’ (vertical member)
b)Flush Door • Have flat front & back surfaces made of materials such as: • -Plywood • -Hardboard • -Laminated plastics • Provides a clean surface & extensively used these days. • The commonly used forms of construction for flush doors: • -Solid core • -Skeleton core • -Cellular core
c)Boarded Door • Different forms of boarded door: • -Ledged & Battened Door • -Battened, Ledged & Braced Door • -Framed, Battened, Ledged & Braced Door • Ledged & Battened Door • Simplest form of boarded door construction • The ledges (bottom, middle & top) are horizontal timber rails which hold together the boards • Only used for such purposes as temporary buildings or sheds • The door is hung on a pair of steel ‘T’ hinges, which are screwed to the top and bottom ledges. Ledge Brace batten
WINDOW A window is an opening in a wall, door or vehicle that allows the passage of light, air and sound.
FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS OF WINDOW • DAYLIGHT • Depend on:- • Size & shape of the windows • Size & distribution of the members of the window frame • The position of the window in relation to the room • The effect of internal & material light reflection
VENTILATION • May be achieved by use of openable windows • THERMAL & SOUND INSULATION • Windows are the weak link in provide good thermal & sound insulation. • Providing a good seal between the openable portion & the fixed portions of the window & improve sound insulation. • It may be achieved by fitting metal or plastic. Thermal insulation film
WEATHER RESISTANCE • Window frames are designed to prevent the passage of water to the middle of the frame. Design features which are often incorporated in a frame include:- • -weathering:-when rainwater would lie on horizontal surfaces, the top surface of a sill is sloped (or weathered) to spill water off the surface. • -Anticapillarygroove/throating groove:-When water might be driven between the frame & the window opening or between fixed & openable portions of the window frame, “anti-capillary” would be needed.
SECURITY All openable window should be fitted with suitable latches or stays which prevent from being opened from outside. Where security is important, special security fittings must be installed. CLEANING Means of opening a window will affect the ease with which it may be cleaned. Location of window is important.
Parts of a window Frame-The combination of the head, jambs and sill that forms a precise opening in which a window sash fits. Glass- a framed sheet of glass within a window frame. Grilles-any bar that divides window glass into smaller panes.Also called a muntin, grid or windowpane divider. Head-The main horizontal part forming the top of the window frame. Jamb-the main vertical parts forming the sides of a window frame. Sash- a single assembly of stiles and rails made into a frame for holding glass. Sill-the main horizontal part forming the bottom of the frame of a window.
Materials of window Stained glass window Timber window
Type of window FIXED WINDOW – cannot be opened, limited only to admit light DOUBLE HUNG WINDOW – hung sash windows which frame holds the panels of glass, and its movable.
HORIZONTAL SLIDING WINDOW – overlapped, slide horizontally within the frame CASEMENT WINDOW – hinged window, swings in or out
FOLDING WINDOWS- panels of window can be folded PIVOTED WINDOWS- a window that opens by pivoting either horizontally or vertically
AWNING WINDOWS-casement window that is hung horizontally, hinged on top, so that it swings outward like an awning Jalousie window- parallel slats of glass or acrylic that open and close like a blind, usually using a crank or a lever.