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Chemistry. You will learn about: Matter pH Scale Chemistry of Cosmetics. Why Chemistry?. The professional cosmetologist needs to understand the chemicals he/she works with in order to: - safely perform chemical services requested by clients,

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  1. Chemistry You will learn about: Matter pH Scale Chemistry of Cosmetics

  2. Why Chemistry? The professional cosmetologist needs to understand the chemicals he/she works with in order to: - safely perform chemical services requested by clients, - teach clients how to care for their hair following chemical services, - and, sell products to their clients.

  3. Matter • Anything that occupies space; exist in 3 forms: • Solids – weight, volume, shape • Liquids – weight, volume, no shape • Gasses – weight, indefinite volume and shape Liquid Gas

  4. Organic Matter • Matter that is now living or was alive at one time. • Ex. - Plants and animals Plants and Mulch Humans Animals

  5. Inorganic Matter • Matter that is NOT alive or has never been alive; does not contain carbon. • Ex. – rocks, water, minerals Rock – Granite Water Mineral - Quartz

  6. Changes In Matter • Physical Change • Change the characteristics without making a new substance. • Ex. – Ice Melting • Chemical Change • A change in a substance that creates a new substance with chemical characteristics different from those of the original substance. • Ex. – Rust – oxygen mixed with metal creates rust (or iron oxide)

  7. Elementsthat make up hair # Element Symbol Form 6 Carbon C Solid 8 Oxygen O Gas 1Hydrogen H Gas 7 Nitrogen N Gas 16 Sulfur S Solid

  8. Anatomy of a Hair Strand

  9. Atoms • Smallest complete unit of an element. • Atoms combine chemically to form • of amino acids. Molecules

  10. Amino Acids • Compounds of C,O,H,N • 22 Common amino acids • Join together in chains to make proteins

  11. Protein • Hair is made up of protein called keratin • Hair is 97% keratin and3% trace minerals • Hair contains19 of 22 commonamino acids.

  12. End Bonds(Peptide Bonds) • Backbone of all protein molecules • Links the amino acid protein chains together end to end. • Do not disturb the end bond, this could destroy the protein structure. • If broken, protein chains separate into small fragments, or revert to groups of amino acids that no longer have the characteristics of hair. • RESULT – VERY DAMAGED HAIR!

  13. Amino Acid Chains are held together by 3 side bonds: • Hydrogen Bond: • Makes up about 35% of hairs strength. • Individually very weak and can easily be broken by heat or water to create physical (temporary) changes in the hair. • Salt Bond: • Also broken by water to create physical (temporary) changes in the hair. • Disulfide Bond: • Most important to a Cosmetologist • Much stronger than hydrogen or salt bonds. • Not broken by heat or water. Only a chemical change. • Example – permanent wave

  14. How the Side Bonds Work Amino Acid Chain Salt Bond Disulfide Bond Hydrogen Bond

  15. How Hydrogen and Salt Bonds are Broken by Water Water molecules can easily break hydrogen and salt bonds when the water molecules move in between the bonds. When the water molecules are not present the hydrogen and bonds come back together. H H2O H H2O H H2O H H2O H H2O H Hydrogen Bonds broken by water molecules

  16. Stages of Hair Formation 5. The individual protein chains bond to other chains by hydrogen bond, salt bonds and disulfide bonds. 3.Amino acids unite to form peptide or end bonds. 2.Unite to become molecules of amino acids. 1.Begins with individual atoms. 6. Hair 4. Amino acids create polypeptide protein chains.

  17. Hair Shaft

  18. Cuticle Layer

  19. Close Look at the Cuticle Layer

  20. Chemistry of Cosmetics • Cosmetic Classifications • Based on how wella substance combines and its physical characteristics

  21. Solutions • Mixture of 2 or more kinds of molecules • Do not separate • Can be solid, liquid or gas

  22. Suspensions • Mixture of 2 or more kinds of molecules • Separates • Needs to be shaken • Example: Vinegar and Oil

  23. Emulsions • 2 or more non-mixable substances united by a binder (gum). • Example: oil in water (perms) • Example: water in oil (cold cream)

  24. Ointments • Mixture of organic substance and a medicinal agent • Semi-solid form • No water • Example: Lipstick

  25. Soaps Mixtures of fat and oil converted to fatty acids by heat and then purified.

  26. Powders • Equal mixtures of inorganic and organic substances that do NOT dissolve in water. • Sifted and mixeduntil free of coarse grit.

  27. Shampoo • Cleans the scalp and hair • Removes all foreign debris without adversely affecting scalp and hair.

  28. How Shampoo Works • A push pull action is caused by a surface active agent causing the oil to “roll up” into droplets that are lifted and rinsed away.

  29. Surfactant • Surface active agent • Has water loving and oil loving ends. Surfactant Molecule Oil Loving Water Loving

  30. The tail of the shampoo molecule is attracted to oil and dirt

  31. Shampoo causes oil to roll up into small globules

  32. During rinsing, the heads of the shampoo moleculesattach to water molecules and cause debris to roll off.

  33. Thorough rinsing washes away debris & excess shampoo.

  34. The Role of Water • Universal solvent • Neutral pH • Hard water = minerals • Hard to lather • Soft water preferred (allows lather)

  35. Types of Shampoos

  36. All Purpose • Low Alkaline • Low surfactants • Mild, does not strip color • Example: Redken Clear Moisture

  37. Plain • Usually strong • High alkaline • Not for chemically treated hair • Follow with acid rinse • Ex: Baby shampoo • Doesn’t burn eyes because it’s high in alkaline and so are eyes.

  38. Soapless Shampoo • Able to lather without harsh alkaline ingredient • Works in soft and hard water

  39. Acid - Balanced • Made to havesame pH as the skin and hair • Will not strip color

  40. Medicated • Often must have prescription • Designed totreat scalp and hair problems

  41. Clarifying • Removes residue • Such asproduct build-up.

  42. Anti-Dandruff • Control dandruff • Massage scalp vigorously and rinse thoroughly

  43. Liquid Dry • Used when client can’t receive normal shampoo • Works with wigs • Evaporates from hair • Very drying

  44. Powder Dry • For bedridden clients • Orris root powder absorbs oil and dirt as product is brushed through the hair. • Don’t use prior to chemical service.

  45. Conditioning • Contain animal, vegetable or mineral additives that enter cortex or coat cuticle. • Improve strength and porosity.

  46. Color • Contain temporary color molecules that stick to outer cuticle of hair.

  47. For Thinning Hair • Gentle • Lighter molecular weight • Provides healthy environment for hair growth.

  48. Rinses and Conditioners

  49. Appearance Rinses and Conditioners give hair the appearance ofShine and Luster

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