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Introduction and Overview

Introduction and Overview

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Introduction and Overview

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  1. Introduction and Overview Political Science 126C / Chicano/Latino Studies 163 Lecture 1 January 6, 2009

  2. Course Overview • Introductions • Course themes • Course requirements and evaluation • Policy Study Groups

  3. Introductions • Louis DeSipio • Email: LDESIPIO@UCI.EDU • Phone: 824-1420 • Office hours: Tuesday 4-6 and by appointment • Office: SSPB 5283 • Teaching Assistants: • Armando Ibarra • Email: ARMANDOI@UCI.EDU / Office: MPAA 428 • Office Hours: Wednesday, 1-3 • Monica Sepulveda • Email: MSEPULVE@UCI.EDU/ Office: SST 603 • Office Hours: Tuesday, 11-1

  4. Course Readings • Louis DeSipio and Rodolfo O. de la Garza. 1998. Making Americans, Remaking America: Immigration and Immigrant Policy. Boulder, CO: Westview Press • Lina Newton. Illegal, Alien, or Immigrant: The Politics of Immigration Reform • Taeku Lee, S. Karthick Ramakrishnan, and Ricardo Ramirez, eds. Transforming Politics, Transforming America: The Political and Civic Incorporation of Immigrants in the United States • Several web resources on the class web page • Books also available on reserve at Langston Library

  5. Course Web Page Syllabus Web readings Lecture outlines Extra credit opportunity notices Occasional articles and data mentioned in lecture

  6. Course Objectives • To identify the elements necessary to achieve “comprehensive” immigration reform and the political interests associated with these elements: • Legal immigration (immigration to permanent residence) • Regulation of unauthorized migration, short-term legal migration, and refugee/asylee admission • Legalization of unauthorized migrants • Immigrant incorporation • With an eye to comparing the United States to other immigrant receiving nations

  7. Course Requirements and Evaluation • Annotated bibliography – January 27 • 10 percent • Research Essay – February 12 • 25 percent • Exam – February 26 • 40 percent • Group presentations/responses – March 3, 5, 10, and 12 • 25 percent • Extra credit for attending campus event(s) during the quarter and writing brief summaries • 1 percent each

  8. Policy Study Groups • Except for exam, assessment will focus on the area of your Policy Study Group • Before next Tuesday’s class, email me with your top three choices for study groups from 20 listed on page 3 of the syllabus • Suggest alternatives if you see a gap • Once assignment is made (after January 20), begin identifying scholarly, journalistic, and advocacy assessments of that policy study area and the current immigration reform debate • Key to assess the objectivity of your sources • You should not rely entirely on advocacy sources

  9. Tips • Do readings before assigned class • Get to know someone in class and compare notes • To prepare for exam – look for recurring themes. • The exam will focus on the structure of U.S. immigration policy, rather than on comprehensive immigration reform (the topic of the group activities). • Begin to become expert in your policy study group theme early in the quarter • Ask questions!

  10. Ongoing Tensions in Crafting Immigration Policy Thrace, Roman Empire 378 AD

  11. Why Thrace? • Many of us have strong opinions about contemporary immigration policy in the United States • Thrace in the 300s AD offers a little distance • Like today’s debate, the facts can be interpreted in a number of ways • Offering different lessons about immigration policy

  12. Thrace in the 300s Thrace today: Southern Bulgaria, North-eastern Greece, Eastern Serbia, Eastern Turkey

  13. Thrace in 378 AD • Battle of Adrianople • Recorded in Western history as the beginning of the fall of the Roman empire • Goths who defeated the Romans present in the Empire after having been admitted as refugees by Emperor Valens in 376 AD • Experience led to period of Roman “anti-Barbarian” reaction that raised tensions with people to the North of the empire who ultimately overwhelmed the Western Roman Empire • Rome sacked in 410 AD and 455 AD • Western Roman empire defeated 476 AD

  14. So, A Cautionary Tale About Immigration? • Perhaps • Romans on the ground suspicious about Goths being admitted in 376 AD • Followed extended period (from 369 AD) with few new migrants • Little planning done in advance of the admission • Goths angered by their treatment • Admission cut off (in response to concerns on the ground) which led to “unauthorized” Goth migration • Promises made in negotiations between Roman and Goth leaders that probably couldn’t be met for the large number of immigrants who arrived

  15. But the Story May be More Complicated • Admission in 376 reflected a century-long history of movement from “barbarian” areas to Rome • Goths, in particular, were adopting many Roman customs • Roman emperors (particularly Constantine the Great in 332 AD) had entered into treaties with Goth leaders • Roman Empire had long incorporated outsiders (the nature of an empire) • So, key part of the story lost if you just look at Adrianople – Barbarians wanted to join the Roman empire, not replace it

  16. Why? • Labor shortage in the Empire, particularly: • Agricultural labor • Troops • Long history of • Resettling Barbarians to low population-density areas of the Empire, where they became indentured to the land (but not slaves) • Use of Barbarians as mercenaries in Roman legions • After 25 years of service, achieved Roman citizenship, or • As mercenaries for a single campaign • Barbarians also part of Roman and Christian intellectual life

  17. What Changed 376-378 AD? • Long period with no refugee admissions • Word spread among Goth tribes that admission opportunity existed • Failure to manage flow of refugees and to prepare for their resettlement • Refugee camps formed • When “legal” admissions stopped, migration continued • Feeling of betrayal by Goths who believed they had guarantees from Roman Emperor • Roman bureaucrats treated Goths as captured enemies • Resettlement march poorly managed, led to revolt

  18. Lessons? • Traditional view – migrations of people very different from majority population will lead to conflict (and, in this case, the destruction of the state) • Alternative view – Incorporation was working prior to 376 AD; what failed was implementation • Either way – rapid changes to long-standing policies run risks for both migrant and receiving state