Psychological Disorders According to the Law The definition of mental disorders rests on whether: 1- the person is aware of the consequences of his actions 2- can control his behavior If not the person may be declared insane.
Definitions of Mental DisorderA Harmful Dysfunction 1- Mental disorders as a violation of cultural standards or atypical behavior 2- Mental disorder as maladaptive or harmful behavior 3- Mental disorder as a disturbing emotional distress. 4- Mental disorder asunjustifiable
Psychologists’ Definition • Any behavior or emotional state that 1- causes the individual great suffering or worry 2- is self-destructive, 3- is maladaptive and disrupts either the person’s relationships or the larger community.
Understanding Psychological Disorders The Medical Perspective Psychological disorders are sicknesses and can be diagnosed, treated, and even cured. The Bio-Psycho-Social Perspective How biological, psychological, and social factors interact to produce specific psychological disorders.
Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders • DSM-IV (1994) contains more than 300 mental disorders. • Provides diagnostic categories • Does not provide information on causes • Does not provide information on treatment • It is organized in 5 axes
Axis IClinical Syndromes Anxiety disorders Mood disorders Dissociative disorders Substance abuse disorders Schizophrenia
Axis IIDevelopmental and Personality Disorders Ingrained aspects of the client’s personality that are likely to affect the person’s ability to be treated, such as self-involvement or dependency.
Axis IIIPhysical Disorders and Conditions • Medical conditions that are relevant to the disorder, such as respiratory or digestive problems.
Axis IVSeverity of Psychosocial Stressors • Social and environmental stressors that can make the disorder worse, such as job and housing troubles or having recently left a network of close friends.
Axis VGlobal Assessment of Functioning • The client’s overall level of functioning at work, relationships, and leisure time including whether the problem was of a recent origin or of long duration, and how incapacitating it is.
Diagnostic Criteria for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder • Symptoms must persist for at least six months • Symptoms must have begun before age seven • Symptoms present in at least two situations • Disorder impairs functioning • Symptoms not explained by another disorder such as:
Diagnostic Criteria for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder • Anxiety • Schizophrenia • Mania • Dissociative Disorder • Personality Disorder • Developmental Disorder
Anxiety Disorders • 1- Generalized Anxiety Disorder • 2- Posttraumatic Stress Disorder • 3- Panic Disorder • 4- Fears and Phobias • 5- Obsession Compulsions
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder • When people are in danger, they produce high levels of natural opiates, which can temporarily mask pain. They also produce stress hormones. • People with PTSD tend to continue producing these hormones. • Norepinephrine is higher than normal. It activates the hippocampus, which is involved with memory and long term memory. • At high levels, stress hormones can become toxic and can damage the brain.
Phobias • Acrophobia: fear of heights • Brontophobia: fear of thunder • Claustrophobia: fear of closed places • Porphyrophobia: fear of the color purple • Mysophobia: fear of dirt and germs • Agoraphobia: fear of being away from a safe place. • Triskaidekaphobia: fear of number 13
Obsession Compulsions • Obsessions Recurrent, persistent, unwished-for thoughts or images. Example: repetitive thoughts about killing a child or becoming contaminated by shaking hands. • Compulsions Repetitive, ritualized behavior that the person feels must be carried out to avoid disaster. Example: hand washing, counting, & checking
Obsession Compulsions • The orbital cortex sends messages of impending danger to the caudate nucleus (prepares the body to respond to external danger). • In people with OCD, the orbital cortex keeps on sending false alarms of danger. • But the caudate nucleus fails to turn them off.
The Learning Perspective Fear Conditioning Stimulus Generalization Reinforcement Observational Learning The Biological Perspective Evolution Genes Physiology Explaining Anxiety Disorders
Mood Disorders • 1- Depression • 2- Mania • 3- Bipolar
Symptoms of Depression • Feeling of despair and hopelessness • Exaggerating minor failings and ignoring positive events • Interpreting losses as signs of personal failures and concluding that happiness is not possible. Physical Changes • Overeating, insomnia, lack of appetite trouble concentrating, feeling tired all the time
Mania • An abnormally high state of exhilaration • Excessive energy • Irrational decisions • Feeling of excessive hopefulness • Speaking rapidly and dramatically • Excessive feeling of ambition • Inflated self esteem
Stages of Mania • 1-Hypomania Patients are energetic, extroverted, and assertive • 2-Mania Loss of judgment • 3-Delusion with Paranoid Themes Speech is generally rapid and hyperactive behavior may lead to violence.
Causes of Mania • Excessive production of one or two neurotransmitters: • 1-Norepinephrine • 2-Serotonin
Bipolar DisorderManic-Depressive • When people alternate between episodes of depression and one or more episodes of mania. • Occurs equally in both sexes. • The onset is between 20-30 with a second peak at 40 • Those who have rapid cycling may experience more episodes of mania and depression that succeed each other without a period of remission.
People Who Had Bipolar • Abraham Lincoln Edgar Allan Poe • Van Gough Virginia Wolf • Vivian Leigh Walt Whitman • Charles Dickens Ernest Hemingway • Newton • Mark Twain
Theories of Depression • 1- Biological explanations emphasize genetic and brain chemistry. • 2- Social explanations emphasize the stressful circumstances of people’s lives. • 3- Attachment explanations emphasize problems with close relationships. • 4- Cognitive explanations emphasize particular habits of thinking and interpreting events • 5- “Vulnerability-stress” explanations draw on all four explanations.
Biological Explanation • Genes may exert their influence by creating biochemical imbalances • The low production of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and serotonin may be the cause of depression. • The brains of depressed people seem less active. • The frontal lobes are 7% smaller in severely depressed patients.
Cognitive Explanations • Internality The reason for misery is internal • Stability The situation is permanent • Lack of Control There is no control over the situation
Learned Helplessness • Pessimistic Explanatory Style • Brooding and Ruminating about Unhappiness
Upsetting Events Loss of loved ones Loss of job Failure Trauma Violence Temporary unhappiness Individual Vulnerability Biological predisposition Low self-esteem Insecure attachment Learned helplessness Negative thinking Pessimism Brooding Vulnerability-Stress Model of Depression
Personality Disorders • 1- Paranoid Personality Disorder • 2- Narcissistic Personality Disorder • 3- Antisocial Personality Disorder
Paranoid Personality Disorder • Unfounded suspiciousness • Mistrust of other people • Irrational jealousy • Secretiveness • Doubt about the loyalty of others • Delusions of being persecuted by others.
Narcissistic Personality Disorder • Exaggerated sense of self-importance • Self-absorption • Fantasies of unlimited success & power • Demand of constant attention & admiration • Feeling of entitlement of special favors • Narcissistic people cant find a good match because they expect perfection.
Symptoms of Antisocial Personality Disorder • 1- They repeatedly break the law. • 2- They are deceitful, using lies to con others. • 3- They are impulsive and unable to plan ahead. • 4- They repeatedly get into fights or assaults. • 5- They show reckless disregard to their own safety or that of others. • 6- They are constantly irresponsible, failing to meet their obligations. • 7- They lack remorse for actions that harm others.
Causes for APD • 1- Abnormalities in the brain and central nervous system • 2- Problems with impulse control • 3- Brain damage • 4- Vulnerability-stress explanations
Emotion • You perceive the sensory stimulus. • The adrenal gland sends two hormones: epinephrine and norepinephrine. • They activate the sympathetic nervous system. • That produces a state of arousal or alertness that provides the body with the energy to act (the pupils dilate, the heart beats faster, and breathing speeds up).
Biological vulnerability Brain damage Genetic predisposition Birth complications Central nervous system abnormalities Stressful Experiences Physical abuse Maternal rejection Lack of contact comfort Vulnerability – Stress Explanation
Dissociative Disorders • 1- Amnesia • 2- Fugue • 3- Dissociative Identity Disorder (Multiple Personality Disorder)
Causes of Addiction • 1- The Disease Model • 2- The Learning Model
The Disease Modal“The Disease Concept of Alcoholism”by E. M. Jellinek • Alcoholism is a disease over which an individual has no control and from which he or she never recovers • Addiction is due to a person’s biochemistry, metabolism, and genetic predisposition. • Genetic Predisposition: • Contribute to traits that predispose the person to become alcoholic. • May affect biochemical processes in the brain that make some people more susceptible than others.
The Learning Model of Addiction 1- Addiction patterns vary according to cultural practices and the social environment. 2- Policies of total abstinence tend to increase rates of addiction rather than reduce them. 3- Not all addicts have withdrawal symptoms when they stop taking a drug. 4- Addiction does not depend on properties of the drug alone, but also on the reason for taking it.
Active Symptoms of Schizophrenia • 1- Bizarre delusions (Paranoid/Identity) • 2- Hallucinations and heightened sensory awareness (auditory, visual, or tactile) • 3- Disorganized, incoherent speech • 4- Grossly disorganized and inappropriate behavior
Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia • Loss of motivation • Poverty of speech • Making only brief and empty replies • Diminished thought and emotionality • Emotional flatness • Unresponsive facial expressions • Poor eye contact
Explanation of Schizophrenia • 1- Genetic predisposition • 2- Structural brain abnormalities • 3- Neurotransmitter abnormalities • 4- Prenatal abnormalities • 5- The Vulnerability-stress approach
Genetic PredispositionRisk of Developing Schizophrenia • Identical twins……less than 50% • Child of 2 schizophrenic parents... 34-46% • Fraternal twins ….less than 20% • Children with 1 schizophrenic parent 12% • Siblings ….. Less than 10%
Brain Abnormalities • Signs of cerebral damage • Decreased brain weight • Reduced numbers of neurons in the prefrontal cortex • Decrease in volume of the limbic regions • Abnormalities in the thalamus • Enlarged ventricles or spaces in the brain
Neurotransmitter Abnormalities • Serotonin • Glutamate • Dopamine
Prenatal Abnormalities • Malnutrition • Infectious virus during prenatal development • Mother’s exposure to influenza virus during the second trimester of pregnancy
Biological Vulnerability Genetic predisposition Birth complications that damage the brain Prenatal damage due to viral infection Stressful Experiences Unstable family life Extreme stress in late adolescence and early adulthood. Vulnerability – Stress Explanation