Psychology BSCS –II SEC A-B BBA-II
Different school of thoughts in psychology • Behaviorism: • Cognitiveism:
Fields of psychology • General psychology • Abnormal psychology • Social psychology • Comparative psychology • Developmental psychology • Educational psychology • Clinical psychology • Cognitive psychology • Industrial psychology • Personality psychology
General psychology: study of people how they think and behave. • focuses on human behavior and behavioral disorders. • Abnormal psychology:
Abnormal psychology Study the behavior of the people who do not adjust with society. • Deals with abnormal behavior • Covers broad rang of disorders • Neuroses: at small level • Psychoses: at large level
Social psychology Looks at the wide rang of social topics. • Group behavior, social perception, non verbal behavior, aggression etc.
Comparative psychology • Concern with the study of animal behavior behavior.
Developmental psychology Field of psychology looks at development through out the lifespan. Through childhood to adulthood. • Include all aspects of human growth. • How and why people change? • Physical • Emotional • Intellectual • Social • personality
Educational psychology • How people learn? • Students outcomes • Individual differences in learning ,etc.
Clinical psychology Branch of psychology concerned with, • Assessment and treatment of mental illness and • Abnormal behavior.
Cognitive psychology Branch of psychology which studies: • Mental process • How people think ,remember and learn etc.
Industrial organizational psychology • Apply psychological theories and principles to organizations • Focuses on issues such as, how to increase workplace productivity? • Study worker attitude and behavior.
Personality psychology • Looks at the patterns of thoughts, feeling and behavior that makes a person unique.
Seven Unifying Themes of Psychology Themes related to psychology as a field of study
Theme :1 Psychology is Empirical • Every one wants to understand behavior • Why some people are hard worker? • Why some are overweight?
Empiricism is What? • Knowledge should be acquired through observation. • Psychologist conduct research to test their ideas. • Are men more aggressive than women?
Theme: 2 Psychology is Theoretically Diverse • Psychologist do not set out to just collect facts. • Explain and understand what they observe • To achieve this goal they construct theories.
What is Theory? • System of inter-related ideas used to explain a set of observation. • No single theory edecuatly explain every thing about behavior. • Is the glass half empty or half full?
Theme 3: psychology evolves in a socio-historical context • Interaction exist between what happens in psychology and what happens in society. • Psychology develops in a social and historical context through trends, issues and values.
Theme 4:Behavior is Determined by Multiple Causes • Psychologists find that behavior is governed by a complex network of interacting factors • There is multi-factorial causation of behavior.
Theme :5 Behavior is Shaped by Cultural Heritage • Culture refers to the shared customs, beliefs, values, norms, institutions, and other products of community that are transmitted socially across generations
Theme :6 Heredity and Environment Jointly Influenced Behavior • Genetics and experience both influence an individual's intelligence, temperament, personality, and to many psychological disorders.
Theme :7 People Experience of the World is Highly Subjective • People tend to see what they want to see or what they expect to see.
Developing Critical Thinking • Critical thinking is purposeful, reasoned, goal-directed thinking. • Involves solving problems • Formulating inferences • Working with probabilities • Making carefully thought-out decisions
e.g. • “What is the most important outcome of an education?”
Chap:2 Sensation and Perception • Sensation: Sensation refers to sensing our environment through touch, taste, sight, sound, and smell (the 5 senses). This information is sent to our brain and that's when perception comes into play. • Perception: perception is the way we interpret these sensations and therefore make sense of everything around us.
Psychophysics • An area of psychology that examines how physical stimuli (such as sight or sound) are related to people’s psychological reaction to those stimuli.
Two basic question • Can people detect low intensity stimulus? • Can people discriminate between two same stimulus?
Detection: • Psychologist present low intensity stimuli and record whether people report them.
Classical psychophysics • Sensory process Approximate detection threshold • Vision A candle flame seen at 30 miles on dark clear night. • Hearing The tick of watch at 20 feet under quit condition. • Touch The wing of a bee falling on your cheek from a distance of ½ inch. • Smell One drop of perfume diffused into the entire volume of a three room apartment. • Taste One teaspoon of sugar in 2 litter of water.
Single detection approach • Expectation • Motivation
Bottom-up and top-down processing • Bot_om • Cons_q__nces • Un_vers_ty
Top-down processing: Top-down processing suggests that we form our perceptions starting with a larger object, concept, or idea before working our way toward more detailed information.
Bottom up • Bottom-up processing is also known as "small chunk" processing . • We attend to or perceive elements by starting with the smaller, more fine details of that element. • Building upward until we have a solid representation of it in our minds.