Warm up • What is the difference between vascular and non-vascular plants? • Specify what type of plant is each of the following:
Introduction • If plants can’t move, how do they spread their seeds? • What are the two types of plants that you know which make seeds?
Objectives • Describe three ways that seed plants differ from seedless plants. • List three characteristics of seed plants. • Define pollen • Describe the structure of seeds. • Compare angiosperms and gymnosperms. • Recognize xylem and phloem as the main vascular tissues in plants. • List three functions of roots. • List three functions of stems.
Seed plant Vascular plants Gymnosperms Angiosperms Nonflowering plants No fruits Ex: trees and shrubs Flowering plants Fruits Ex: grass and fruit trees
Characteristics of a seed plants • Seed plants produce seeds. • Seeds nourish and protect young sporophytes.
Characteristics of a seed plants • The gametophyte of seed plants don’t live independently of the sporophyte. The gametophytes is small and form within the reproductive structures of the sporophyte.
Characteristics of a seed plants • The sperm of seedless plants need water to swim to the eggs of female gametophyte. Whereas, the sperm of the seed plants are formed inside pollen • Pollen can be transported by wind or by animals. • 1- List three characteristics of seed plants
Structure of a seed • A seed is formed after fertilization, when a sperm and an egg join. • A seed is made up of three parts: 1- young plant or the sporophyte 2- stored food in the cotyledon 3- seed coat which surrounds and protects the seed.
Advantages of seed plants C.T: 2- how being eaten by an animal help a seed to grow?
Structure of seed plants Plants Root system Shoot system Made of roots Made of stem and leaves
What is the main difference between vascular and nonvascular plants? Vascular tissue Xylem Phloem Move material from leaves to all plant parts Move material from roots to shoots (stem and leaves) Found in all plant parts
Roots • Most roots are underground • Roots supply plants with water and dissolved minerals. • They support and anchor plants. • Roots also store surplus food made during photosynthesis. The food is produced in the leaves where it is transported by the phloem to the roots where it is stored as sugar or starch.
Stems • Stems are very various in shape and size. • Usually located above the ground, however some can be underground. • Stems support the body of a plant. • They allow transport of material between the root system and shoot system, (contain xylem and phloem). • Some stems store materials, such as water.