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Αξιολόγηση πανεπιστημίων

Αξιολόγηση πανεπιστημίων

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Αξιολόγηση πανεπιστημίων

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  1. Αξιολόγηση πανεπιστημίων

  2. Η έννοια της σύγκρισης πανεπιστημίων • Άρχισε κατά τον Μεσαίωνα • Ο ανταγωνισμός για φοιτητές και χρηματοδότηση έφερε τη σύγκριση • Αλλά δεν υπήρχε κατάταξη όπως τη ξέρουμε σήμερα OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP

  3. University of Modena, Modena, Ιταλία, 1175 University of Cambridge, Cambridge, Αγγλία, γύρω στο 1208 Salamanca University, Salamanca, Ισπανία, 1218 University of Padua, Padua, Ιταλία, 1222 University of Naples, Naples, Ιταλία, 1224 University of Siena, Siena, Ιταλία, 1240 University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Πορτογαλία, 1290στη Λισαβόνα Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Μαδρίτη, 1293 OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP

  4. University of Rome La Sapienza, Ρώμη, Ιταλία, 1303 • University of Pisa, Pisa, Ιταλία, 1343 • University of Prague, Prague, Czech Republic, 1348 • University of Pavia, Pavia, Ιταλία, 1361 • Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland, 1364 • University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 1365 • University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary, 1367 • Ruprecht Karls University of Heidelberg, Γερμανία, 1386 • University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Ιταλία, 1391 • University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Γερμανία, 1409 • St. Andrews University, St. Andrews, Σκωτία, 1412 • University of Rostock, Rostock, Γερμανία, 1419 OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP

  5. Παλαιότερα πανεπιστήμια ανά περιοχή • Universidad Autonoma de Santo Domingo, in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic το παλαιότερο στην Αμερική, 1538 • University of Leiden, το παλαιότερο στην Ολανδία,1575 • University of Santo Tomas, στις Φιλιππίνες, 1611 • Harvard University στις Η.Π.Α., 1636 • Ivan Franko National University of L'viv στην Ουκρανία, 1661 • Université Laval στον Καναδά1663 • University of Oslo στη Νορβηγία 1811 OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP

  6. Serampore College το παλαιότερο στην Ασια για θεολογικές σπουδές, 1818 • University of Sydney το παλαιότερο στην Αυστραλία,1850 • University of Calcutta στη Νότια Ασία, 1857 • University of Otago το παλαιότερο στη Νέα Ζηλανδία 1863 • University of Tokyo το παλαιότερο στην Ιαπωνία 1877 OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP

  7. 1088 University of Bologna 1096 University of Oxford 1150University of Paris OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP

  8. Το Εθνικό και Καποδιστριακό Πανεπιστήμιο Αθηνών, το οποίο συνήθως αναφέρεται απλά ως Πανεπιστήμιο Αθηνών, αποτελεί λειτουργεί αδιαλείπτως από την ίδρυσή του στις 3 Μαΐου 1837. Σήμερα είναι το δεύτερο μεγαλύτερο Πανεπιστήμιο της Ελλάδας σε αριθμό φοιτητών (μετά το Αριστοτέλειο Πανεπιστήμιο Θεσσαλονίκης), με περισσότερους από 50.000 προπτυχιακούς φοιτητές. Το 2009 κατατάχθηκε στην 177η θέση των 200 καλύτερων πανεπιστημίων στο κόσμο (2008: 200η), σύμφωνα με τον δείκτη του περιοδικού Times Higher Education, ενώ ο δείκτης Academic Ranking of World Universities το κατατάσσει στις θέσεις 200-300 για το 2008

  9. Κατάταξη πανεπιστημίων Σχετικά νέα (ξεκίνησε το 2002) • Times Higher Education-QS Ranking • Academic Ranking of World Universities • Webometrics Ranking • Professional Ranking of World Universities • Newsweek Ranking • Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP

  10. Times Higher Education-QS World Ranking of Universities • Times Higher Education (THE) σε συνεργασία με την Quacquarelli Symonds δημοσιοποιεί από το 2002, τη λίστα των καλύτερων 500 πανεπιστημίων στον κόσμο. OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP

  11. Δείκτες για το THE-QS World Ranking of Universities

  12. Academic Ranking of World Universities • Began June 2003 • Compiled by Shanghai Jiao Tong University’s Institute of Higher Education Indicators • Alumni and staff winning Nobel Prizes and Fields Medals • Highly Cited Researchers in twenty-one broad subject categories • Articles published in Nature and Science, articles indexed in Science Citation Index-Expanded (SCIE) and Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) • Academic performance with respect to the size of an institution OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP

  13. Selection of Universities • Any university that has any Nobel Laureates, Fields Medals, Highly Cited Researchers, or papers published in Nature or Science. • Major universities of every country with significant amount of papers indexed by Thomson. • Number of universities scanned: >2000 • Number of universities actually ranked: >1000 • Number of ranked universities on our web: 500 OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP

  14. Ranking Criteria and Weights OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP

  15. Definition of Indicator: Alumni • The total number of the alumni of an institution winning Nobel Prizes and Fields Medals. • Alumni are defined as those who obtain bachelor, Master’s or doctoral degrees from the institution. • Different weights are set according to the periods of obtaining degrees. The weight is 100% for alumni of 1991-2000, 90% for alumni of 1981-1990, 80% for alumni of 1971-1980, and so on. • If a person obtains more than one degrees from an institution, the institution is considered once only. OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP

  16. Definition of Indicator: Award • The total number of the staff of an institution winning Nobel prizes in physics, chemistry, medicine and economics and Fields Medal in Mathematics. • Staff is defined as those who work at an institution at the time of winning the prize. • Different weights are set according to the periods of winning the prizes. The weight is 100% for winners since 2001, 90% for winners in 1991-2000, 80% for winners in 1981-1990, 70% for winners in 1971-1980, and so on. • If a winner is affiliated with more than one institution, each institution is assigned the reciprocal of the number of institutions. • For Nobel prizes, if a prize is shared by more than one person, weights are set for winners according to their proportion of prize. OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP

  17. Definition of Indicator: HiCi • The number of highly cited researchers in 21 broad subject categories in life sciences, medicine, physical sciences, engineering and social sciences. • The definition of categories and detailed procedures can be found at the website of Institute of Scientific Information. • The total number of HiCi is about 5000, about 4000 of which is university staff. OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP

  18. Definition of Indicator: N&S • The annual average number of articles published in Nature and Science in the past five years. • To distinguish the order of author affiliation, a weight of 100% is assigned for corresponding author, 50% for first author (second author if the first author is the same as corresponding author), 25% for the next author, and 10% for other authors. • Only publications of article type are considered. OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP

  19. Definition of Indicator: PUB • Total number of articles indexed in Science Citation Index-expanded (SCIE) and Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) in the past year. • A weight of 2 is assigned to articles indexed in SSCI to compensate the bias against humanities and social sciences. • Only publications of article type are considered. OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP

  20. Definition of Indicator: PCP • The sub-total scores of the above five indicators divided by the number of full-time equivalent academic staff. • If the number of academic staff for institutions of a country cannot be obtained, the total scores of the above five indicators is used. • For ranking 2005, the number of full-time equivalent academic staff is obtained for institutions in USA, China, Australia, Italy, Netherlands, Sweden, and Belgium etc. OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP

  21. Main Sources of Data • Nobel laureates: http://www.nobel.se • Fields Medals: http://www.mathunion.org/medals/ • Highly-cited researchers: http://www.isihighlycited.com • Articles published in Nature and Science: http://www.isiknowledge.com • Articles indexed in SCIE and SSCI: http://www.isiknowledge.com OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP

  22. Results of ARWU • http://www.arwu.org/ • Top 500 universities in the world • Top 100 universities in North and Latin America • Top 100 universities in Asia/Oceania • Top 100 universities in Europe • Statistics of top universities by region and country • Percentage distribution of top universities by country as compared with the share of global population and GDP OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP

  23. Webometrics Ranking OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP

  24. Importance of Web Presence • The new Academic global market • Increased mobility of professors and alumni • International competition forhuman resources and funding • Getting prestige and visibility in the digital world • Web is the best showcase for Universities • All missions covered: teaching+research+transfer • Intangibles and the web contents • Freedom of teaching • Self-organisation and maturity • Access to resources • Scholarly (formal and informal) communication • Universal target groups • Colleagues all over the world • Prospective students worldwide • Economic interested stakeholders • General (huge) audiences • Richer and diversified contents at cheaper costs OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP

  25. Webometrics Ranking Model PAGES RESEARCH DOCUMENTS TEACHING USAGE PAPERS VISIBILITY TRANSFER MOTIVATIONS IMPACT ACTIVITY MISSIONS OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP

  26. Metrics of the Web • Contents size • Correlated with the knowledge production capabilities of the institution • number of potential authors (faculty members, staff, alumni) • available (access to) resources • internal and external policies • Quality resources • Difficult criteria • authoritativeness of the scholars (university) • peer review 2.0 • formats (file types), language (lingua franca) • Visibility • Hypertext links networks • New motivations, many linkers (siters) • Open versus Closed (international) impact • Popularity • Users, visits, behavior, evolution, referrers • Methodological problems (global comparison no feasible) OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP

  27. Methodology • Normalization • log (na+1) N: search engine (Google, Yahoo, Live, Exalead) • Na= ----------------------------- a: web domain • log (max(ni)+1) • Median method (Size) • Sa= ½ * ((Ga+ Ya + La +Ea) – max (Ga,Ya,La,Ea) - min (Ga,Ya,La,Ea)) • Rich files • Ra= PDFa+ DOCa + PPTa + Psa • Ranking • Sa -> Ra(S) • Ra -> Ra(R) Va -> Ra(V) 1:1 WR= (50%*V) + (20%*S+15%*R+15%*Sc) • Sca -> Ra(Sc) OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP

  28. OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP

  29. Expected Results • North America • MIT (1st region & world), Stanford University (2nd), Harvard University (3rd) • University of Toronto (25th world) • Europe • Cambridge (1st region), Oxford (2nd), ETH Zurich (3rd) • Asia • Tokyo (61th world), National Taiwan (73th) and Beijing (133th) universities • Oceania • Australian National University (47th) • Latin America • Universidad NacionalAutónoma de México (59th world) • Universidade de Sao Paulo (114th world) • Africa • University of Cape Town (349th world) WR (January 2008) OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP

  30. Unexpected Results • Up • Pennsylvania State University (4th world) • CiteSeer, index of computer and information science papers • University of Wisconsin, Madison (7th world) • Internet Scout Project • Linkoping University (14th Europe, 79th world) • Lysator, the Academic Computer Society • Universitat Trier (50th Europe, 171th world) • DBLP, ComputerScienceBibliography • Down • CornellUniversity (10thworld) • Arxiv (www.arxiv.org, notunder cornell.edu) • California Institute of Technology (31thworld) • Jet PropulsionLaboratory(jpl.nasa.gov, notunder caltech.edu) • Princeton University (36thworld) • Yale University (41stworld) • Johns Hopkins University(42ndworld) • School of Medicine (hopkinsmedicine.org, notunder jhu.edu) WR (January 2008) OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP

  31. Comparative Analysis (I) (2007) OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP

  32. Comparative Analysis (II) 33 (2007) OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP

  33. Comparative Analysis (III) OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP (2007)

  34. Universities by Country Top 200 universities in the Webometrics Ranking (July 2007) OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP

  35. Academic Digital Divide WR (January 2008) OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP

  36. Regional distribution Number of universities by region in the Webometrics Ranking (July 2007) OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP

  37. Professional Ranking of World Universities • Started in 2007 by École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris • based on a single indicator- the number of alumni holding a post of chief executive officer or equivalent in one of the 500 leading international companies as reported in Fortune Global 500. OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP

  38. Newsweek Ranking • Started August 2006 by Newsweek, the American weekly newsmagazine • Called the “Top 100 Global Universities” • combined selected indicators from two rankings (Academic Ranking of World Universities by Shanghai Jiao Tong University and The Times Higher Education), with the additional criterion of library holdings (number of volumes). OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP

  39. Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities • Began in 2007 • Produced by the Higher Education Evaluation and Accreditation Council of Taiwan • Employs bibliometric methods to analyse and rank the scientific papers of the top 500 universities in the world. OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP

  40. Non-Global (Regional and National) Ranking • Canada • India • Ireland • UK • US • …. OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP

  41. World Rankings • Webometrics Rank • First published in 2004. From 2006, two editions (January and July) • Higher education Institutions (mostly universities): +15,000 (Jan’08) • R&D related institutions (mostly research centers): +4,800 (Jan’08) OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP

  42. Ranking for Whom? • Ranking is for all stakeholders in university education • include university administrators notably the Vice-Chancellor and his/her management, staff, students, parents, the proprietor, employers of labour, the media, the civil society especially what is popularly called the “common man”, the international community and funding agencies. OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP

  43. What Purpose Does Ranking Serve?-1 • It provides information on relative standing of courses or programmes in a university relative to similar programmes in other universities • It provides information on overall standing of one university relative to others • Guidance for potential students on which institutions to go for particular course • University administrators are able to detect weaknesses in their programme delivery that needs to corrected OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP

  44. What Purpose Does Ranking Serve?- 2 • Publicity for institutions that are well ranked. For instance, the Vice-Chancellor can make a boast that his/her university is among the top 10 in a programme. The Head of Department can flaunt the information that his/her medical programme is the best in the country • Fuel for the advocacy machinery of student and staff unions for improved funding for the system • Excuse for employers to deny employment to graduates • Supporting evidence for critics that graduates are half-baked if universities earn low ranking on league tables OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP

  45. What Purpose Does Ranking Serve?- 3 • Indication of the quality of delivery in the university system • Stimulus for university administrators to buckle up to avoid the ridicule of being low down in the league table • Salmi and Saroyan (2007) report that in some countries authorities restrict scholarships for studies abroad to students admitted to highly ranked institutions; donor agencies and foundations also look at international rankings to inform their decision making OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP

  46. What Purpose Does Ranking Serve?- 4 • League tables play an important role in deciding international collaborations. The VC of Ilorin has indicated desire to revive international linkages. It is not in doubt that he will steer Senate in the direction of collaborating with globally well-ranked universities. • It encourages institutions to re-examine their mission statements OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP

  47. University Ranking: The Nigerian Experience • 2001 • 2002 • 2003 • 2004 OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP

  48. University Ranking: The Nigerian Experience- Indicators (1) • Percentage of academic programmes of the university with full accreditation status: • Compliance with carrying capacity (measured by the degree of deviation from carrying capacity) • Proportion of the academic staff of the university at professorial level • Foreign content (staff): proportion of the academic staff of the university who are non-Nigerians • Foreign content (students): proportion of the students of the university who are non-Nigerians OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP

  49. University Ranking: The Nigerian Experience- Indicators (2) • Proportion of staff of the university with outstanding academic achievements • Research output • Student completion rate • Ph.D. graduate output for the year • Stability of university calendar • Student-to-PC Ratio OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP