Rosemarie Rizzo Parse Human Becoming Theory Melody Devlin Amber Hart
Background • Graduated from Duquesne University in Pittsburgh, where she later served as the dean of nursing. • Master’s and Doctorate from the University of Pittsburgh. • Professor and Coordinator of the Center for Nursing Research at Hunter College of the City of New York (1983-1993) • Professor and Niehoff Chair at Loyola University Chicago (1993-2006). “Parse is an articulate, courageous, and vibrant leader with a strong vision and a deliberate determination to advance the discipline of nursing . . . With a perspective that focuses on quality of life and human dignity from the perspective of patients, families and communities”
Published Author • Published 9 books • Over 100 articles • Renowned speaker on Nursing Education, Theory to over 300 local, national and international venues in 30 different countries on 5 continents
Awards • Lifetime Achievement Awards from: • Nursing Research Society • Asian American Pacific Islander Nursesa • Rosemarie Rizzo Parse Scholarship endowed in her name at the Henderson State College of Nursing • Society of Rogerian Scholars honored her by awarding the Martha E. Rogers: Golden Slinky Award • 2008 New York Times Nurse Educator of the Year Award
Currently . . . • Consultant and Visiting Scholar at the New York University College of Nursing • Founder and current Editor of Nursing Science Quarterly • President of Discovery International, inc. • Founder of the Institute of Humanbecoming
Origin of the Humanbecoming Theory • Originally Published in 1981 and was entitled “Man-living-health” • Renamed in 1992 to remove the word “man” which was formerly in the dictionary as human kind. • Developed as a human science nursing theory in the tradition of Dilthey, Heidegger, Sartre, Merleau-Ponty and Gadamer. • Assumptions were synthesized from works of European philosophers: Heidegger, Sartre, Merleau-Ponty • Along with the works of American nurse theorist Martha Rogers. • Called a “School of Thought” because it encompasses: otology, epistemology and methodology
Assumptions • The human is: • C-oexisting while co-constituting rhythmical patterns. • Open, freely choosing meaning with situation, bearing responsibility for decisions. • Becoming is: • Human-living-health • Rhythmically coconstitutinghumanuniversw • Human’s value priority patterns • Transcending with possibles • Human’s emerging
Basic Concepts of the Human Becoming Theory “Nurses live the art of humanbecoming in true presence with the unfolding of illuminating meaning, synchronizing rhythms, and mobilizing transcendence.” (Cody and Bournes, 2010) • Meaning • Rhythmicity • Transcendence
Parse for Dummies! • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K9OcXfS4nNU&feature=results_video&playnext=1&list=PL3A9EE8A6ABEB6B94
Meaning • “Structuring meaning is the imaging and valuing of languaging” (Cody and Bournes, 2010) • In English: People coparticipate in creating what is real for them through self-expression in living their values a chosen way.
Rhythmicity • Configuring rhythmical patterns of relating is the revealing-concealing and enabling-limiting of connecting-separating. • Translation: Living moment to moment one shows and does not show self as opportunities and limitations emerge in moving with and apart from others.
Transcendence • “Co-transcending with possibles is the powering and originating of transforming” • Translation: Moving beyond the “now” moment is forging a unique personal path for oneself in the midst of ambiguity and continuous change.
Principles • Structuring meaning is the imaging and valuing of languaging. • Configuring rhythmical patterns is the revealing-concealing and enabling-limiting of connecting-separating. • Contransceding with possibles is the powering and originating of transforming.
Four Postulates • Illimitability • “Indivisible unbounded knowing extended to infinity, the all-at-once remembering and prospecting with the moment.” (Parse, 2007) • Paradox • “an intricate rhythm expressed as a pattern preference” Paradoxes are not “opposites to be reconciled or dilemmas to be overcome but, rather, lived rhythms” (Parse, 2007) • Freedom • “contextually construed liberation” Humans are free and continuously choose ways of being with their situations. (Parse, 2007) • Mystery • “unexplainable, that which cannot be completely known” unutterable, unknowable nature of the indivisible, unpredictable, ever-changing human universe. (Parse, 2007)
Paradoxes • Imaging: explicit-tacit; reflective-prereflective • Valuing: Confirming-not confirming • Revealing-Concealing: disclosing-not disclosing • Connecting-Separating: attending-distancing • Powering: pushing-resisting; affirming-not affirming; being-nonbeing • Originating: certainty-uncertainty; conforming- not conforming • Transforming: familiar-unfamiliar Retrieved from :http://discoveryinternationalonline.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/2011HBontology.pdf
Nursing Paradigms and Parse’s Theory • Person • Open being who is more than and different from the sum of the parts • Environment • Everything in the person and his experiences • Inseparable, complimentary to and evolving with • Health • Open process of being and becoming, involves synthesis of values. • Health is not static but, rather, is ever-changing as humans choose ways of living. • Nursing • A human science and art that uses an abstract boy of knowledge to serve people.
A little more on Parse and Nursing • Nursing is both a profession and a discipline. • The goal of a discipline is to expand knowledge about human experiences through creative conceptualization and research. • The goal of a profession is to provide service to humankind through living art of science. “Members of the nursing profession are responsible for regulating the standards of practice and education based on disciplinary knowledge that reflects safe health service to society in all settings” -Parse, 1999
Symbol of Humanbecoming Theory • Black and White • Opposite paradox significant to ontology of human becoming • Green • Hope • Center Joined • Co Created mutual human universe process at the ontological level & nurse person process • Green and Black Swirls Intertwining • Human-Universe co creation as an ongoing process of becoming
Theory Overview:Parse Scholars Beliefs • Quality of Life from patient’s perspective • Diagnostic practice fails to respect humankind • Standardized nursing interventions disregard human dignity • Understanding human experience= individual freedom • Humans are change with the process of living • Inherent freedom is to be honored by nurses
Theory Overview:Real World Example • Chronic Pain • Nurses should ask patient to describe pain in detail • Physiological, psychological, situational factors • Nurses should be aware of patient’s life situation • By listening to patients, pain can be improved • Treatment plan can be developed • Patients feel closer to nurses who listen
Theories Use in Nursing • Differentiates Nursing from other disciplines. • Not applicable in Acute or Emergent Care. • Does not utilize nursing process
Parse and Research • Strengths: • Provides Research Methodologies • Enhances understanding of human lived experience, health, quality of life and quality of nursing practice. • Expands the theory of human becoming • Builds new nursing knowledge about universal lived experiences which may ultimately contribute to health and quality of life. • Weaknesses: • “closed circle” • Rarely quantifiable results • Difficult to compare to other research studies • Differentiates nursing from other disciplines & not applicable in other disciplines
Example of Research using Humanbecoming Theory • Humanbecoming 80/20 Model • 80% of time in direct patient care practicing humanbecoming • 20% of time learning about humanbecoming
Fawcett’s CriteriaSignificance • Are the metaparadigm concepts & propositions explicit? • Yes • Are the philosophical claims explicit? • Yes • Is the conceptual model from which derived from explicit? • Yes, Martha Rogers • Are the authors of antecedent knowledge acknowledged? • Yes, acknowledges Martha Rogers
Fawcett’s CriteriaInternal Consistency & Parsimony • Are the context and content of the theory congruent? • Yes • Do the concepts reflect semantic clarity & consistency? • Yes • Is the theory content stated clearly & concisely? • Yes
Fawcett’s CriteriaTestability & Empirical Adequacy • Is the research methodology identified & congruent w/philosophical claims? • Yes • Will data obtained from research sufficiently capture the essence of the theory? • Yes • Are the findings from studies of descriptions of personal experiences congruent with theory concepts? • Yes • Are theoretical assertions congruent with empirical evidence? • Yes
Fawcett’s CriteriaPragmatic Adequacy • Are education & special training required before application of theory in nursing practice? • Yes- language of Humanbecoming • Has the theory been applied in the real world of nursing? • Yes- 80/20 study mentioned earlier • Is it feasible to implement practice derived from theory? • Yes • Can you measure the effectiveness of the theory? • Yes- qualitative measurement • Can you compare outcomes of the theory when used vs. not used? • Yes
Fawcett’s Interview with Parse • http://www.virtualcurriculum.com/N3225/Fawcett_Parse.pdf
References • Cody, W., Bournes, D., Parse’s Humanbecoming School of Thought. May 2010. Retrieved electronically from: www.humanbecoming.org • Parse, R. R.,TheHumanbecoming School of Thought in 2050. Nursing Science Quarterly, 2007, 20, pp 307-311. Retrieved from: http://www.discoveryinternationalonline.com/site/ontology.html • Nursing Theories; A Companion to nursing theories and models: Rosemarie Rizzo Parse. Updated October 27, 2011. Retrieved from: http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/Rosemary_Pars_Human_Becoming_Theory.html • Parker, M E., Smith, M C., Nursing Theories and Nursing Practice 3rd Ed. Chapter 16: Rosemarie Rizzo Parse’s Humanbecoming School of Thought. Pp 277-287.2010 F. A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA. • Liehr, P. Looking at symptoms with a middle-range theory lens. Proceedings, Aug 2005, 3(5), 152-157. Retrieved from: http://www.jhasin.com/