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Agricultural Extension

Agricultural Extension

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Agricultural Extension

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  1. Agricultural Extension Aged 4713Fall 2002 Manuel Corro

  2. In this class we will learn about: • Definition of Extension • Importance of Extension in Ag. Development • Elements for a Effective Agricultural Extension Service • Alternative models in organizing Agricultural Extension in developing countries

  3. Agricultural research is important because: • Help to improve development • economic growth • poverty alleviation • rural development • improve management of natural resources • Ag research is central for boosting productivity • It is the primary engine of the economic growth

  4. Importance of Agriculture in Economic Development • Increase the supply of food for consumption • Release labor for industrial employment • Enlarge the size of the market for industrial output • Increase the supply of domestic savings; and • Earn foreign exchange Eicher and Staatz, 1998

  5. Definition of Extension • Extension is an on-going process that have two dimensions: • Communication • Educational • Communicate useful information to people • Assist people to acquire the knowledge to use the information or technology • Extension or non-formal education can be used in agriculture and non-agric. programs Swanson and Claar, 1984

  6. Agricultural Extension • Agricultural Extension is an on-going process that Communicate useful information to the people and assist them to use the information or technology to improve the quality of their life, their families and communities. Swanson and Claar, 1984

  7. The Adoption Process(AKAP sequence) • A: Farmer awareness • K: Farmer knowledge • Testing, and • Experimenting • A: Farmer adoption of technology or practices • P: Changes in farmers’ productivity

  8. Conditions for a successful Agricultural Extension Service • Organized Information based on accumulated knowledge and/or research, suitable for a particular environment. • Information used to educate professional agriculturists. (higher education in Ag) • Appropriate funds and administrative organization structure • Legislative or official mandate that prescribes Agricultural Extension

  9. Elements for an Effective Agricultural Extension Service • Extension Agent • Good communication skills • Good technical knowledge • Teaching method • Demonstration • Methods • Results • Type • SupportingFunds • Infrastructure

  10. How is Extension doing in Developing countries?

  11. The Many Faces of Extension in Developing Countries • Because extension is a process it can be organized in different ways. • Extension may be implemented by the public or private sector • Public sector has more Educational purposes (broader) • Private extension service main purpose is to transfer technology (narrow)

  12. Agricultural Extension is not a one-shot effort. • It entails a continuos, long term process of contact with farmers to understand their production conditions and to guide research to develop recommendations that respond to farmers’ needs. Benor D., Harrison J. Q., Baxter M. 1984

  13. General Problems with Extension in Developing Countries • Organization • Dilution of Effort • Coverage and Mobility • Demonstrations • Training • Unspecialized Staff • Lack of Ties with research • Status of Extension Personnel • Duplication of Services

  14. Who does Extension in Developing countries? • Federal government trough Ministry of Agriculture conducted most of the extension work in Developing Countries But, other institutions could be involved: • Private Sector • Agricultural Universities • Non-governmental Organizations

  15. Alternative Models to Organizing Extension • General models • Ministry-Based General Extension • Training and Visit Extension (T&V) World Bank • University-Based Extension • Agricultural Universities (Land grant system)

  16. Alternative Models to Organizing Extension • Extension to selected clientele • Commodity based Extension • Extension as a Commercial Service • Participatory Extension services

  17. Training & Visit system • Its goal was to improve Ministry based Extension system in developing countries • Developed by Daniel Benor in 1970’s • Supported by World Bank loans • A professional system of extension based on frequently updated training of extension workers and regular field visits. (T&V)

  18. Commodity based Extension • an example of private Extension service in Mexico • NestleDairy Company Extension service • Goal: improve quality of milk supplied to Nestle factory • Extension agent: Nestle employee • Clientele: small and medium dairy producers • Company provides some inputs ( feed, vet medicine, as loan