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Chapter 12, Religion: Location, Diffusion, and Cultural Landscape . Great faiths all arose within a few thousand years and within a few thousand kilometers of each other in South and Southwest Asia. Diffusion later than languages Diffusion Routes Hinduism:Caste System/Rejection
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Chapter 12, Religion: Location, Diffusion, and Cultural Landscape Great faiths all arose within a few thousand years and within a few thousand kilometers of each other in South and Southwest Asia. Diffusion later than languages Diffusion Routes Hinduism:Caste System/Rejection Buddhism:Diffusion/Branches/Lamaism/Landscapes Confucianism, Taoism/Fen-Shui Judaism Christianity:Landscape Confucianism Cemeteries/Funerals Islam-Five Pillars, Diffusion
Hinduism- the oldest religion • No prophet, books or bureaucratic structure • Originated from Indus Valley, 4000yrs ago • Doctrine -Karma - all beings have souls and are arranged in a hierarchy. • Souls, in the next life, move upward in the hierarchy and then to escape from the eternal cycle through union with the “Brahman”, up or down movement depend on “good” or “bad” behavior in the present life • Reincarnation - if you mistreat an animal in this life, chances are you will be that animal in a future life • “Caste System” bound to the Hinduism - “untouchables” could not enter temples……a generation ago. • Mahatma Gandhi loosened the social barriers of the caste system
The Caste System in Hindusim • 1. Brahmins(White) - Priests and Teachers (don’t eat meat) • 2. Ksatriyas(Red) - Warriors and Rulers • 3. Vaisyas(Brown) - Farmers, Merchants, Artisans,etc • 4. Sudras(Black) - Laborers • Outcastes - Untouchables - Polluted Laborers • There are literally thousands of subclasses in India, often with an administrative or corporate structure. When Gandhi wanted to go to England to study law, he had to ask his subcaste for permission to leave India. • Ganhdi means “Greengrocer”
Boys reborn at age: Brahmins - peace, self-harmony purity, loving-forgiveness, vision wisdom and faith 8 Twice Born Ks.atriya-heroic mind, inner fire, courage in battle, generosity and noble leadership member of Vedic religion, eligible to learn Sanskrit 11 marriage for girl who will be bestowed with the thread Vaishya - Trade, agriculture, rearing of cattle 12 Varn.as Sudras - service Outcastes Untouchable - sometimes
The Untouchables • 20% of Hindus. Some ejected from castes to untouchables, example of Gandhi. • Job Description - dealing with the bodies of dead animals or human body, manufacturing leather goods, cleaning up the human and animal waste • Gandhi - went on fasts in the hope of improving the condition of the Untouchables Hinduism -Diffusion/Cultural Landscape • Essentially is a cultural religion of South Asia. • Hinduism is “a way of life”, if you build a temple you will be rewarded. So, there are many “shrines” which should be in a “comfortable” position (for example, under a large, shady tree) and near water which has a holy function in Hinduism. • A village temple should face the village from a prominent position
Bathing in Ganges River. They believe Ganges springs from the hair of Siva, one of the main deities. • Hindus achieve purification by bathing in the Ganges, and bodies of the dead are washed with water from it before being cremated.
Rejection to Hinduism • Jainism began in 6th century B.C. as a revolt against the authority of the early Hindu doctrines, caste distinctions and modifies concepts of karma and transmigration of souls - 4 million followers • Sikhism - rejecting the formalism of both Hinduism and Islam and proclaiming a gospel of universal toleration, and • Buddhism - 6th century B.C. four noble truths: 1) existence involves suffering 2) suffering is the result of desire 3) pain ceases when desire is destroyed 4) the destruction of desire comes through knowledge of correct behavior and correct thoughts
Buddhism • A protest to the Hinduism’s strict social hierarchy that protected the privileged and kept majority in poverty (another protest - Jainism) • Founded by Prince Siddhartah (Gautama), the heir to a wealthy kingdom - Nepal • Buddha - Enlightened One was the first prominent Indian religious leader to speak out against Hinduism’s caste system • Enlightenment would come through self-knowledge, elimination of greed, craving and desire; complete honesty; and never hurting another person or animal- vegetarians • Seeking Perfect Wisdom and the permanent escape from all anguish via the realizatioin of True Ultimate Reality - Nirvana • What is “Zen”? • Who is Dalai Lama?
Buddhism - Diffusion • Emperor Asoka - started diffusion process. It reached Sri Lanka, Mediterranean, Tibet, China, Japan, Korea, Vietnam and Indonesia • While Buddhism spread to distant lands, it began to decline in its region of origin. After Asoka, India is mainly Hinduism. A process of Migration Diffusion
Branches of Buddhism • Mahayana -Vietnam/China/Japan /Korea - appeals to superhuman/ personal meditation/ worship • Theravada - Sri Lanka/Myanmar/Thailand /Laos/Cambodia - salvation is personal matter/ good behavior/be monk or nun • Lamaism(Vajrayana) - Tibet: Dalai Lama: reincarnated Buddha. Self-discipline, conversion through meditation and study of philosophy • Zen - Japan, Taiwan and US - Zen Master
Buddhism Asian Diffusion Routes Source: Fellmann Getis, Getis, 2000
Lamaism - Tibetan religion of about 3 million Tibetans and 7 million Mongols and others, including Richard Gere. • The Dalai Lama is the equivalent of the Pope for them. A secondary leader is the Teshu Lama (or Panchen Lama). These two are regarded as ‘Living Buddhas”, being reincarnations of Buddha passing from one existence to another. When one dies, his successor is sought from among the baby boys born at the time the leader passed away because it is believed that the soul of the Buddha has only passed into another existence
Lahsa: Potola Palace - Tibet, 13 stories, 1000 rooms, red and white palaces
Cultural LandscapeBecause Prince Siddhartha sat under the “Bodhi”, this tree has become the symbolic characteristic of Buddhism. Photo: The site of Buddha’s enlightenmentPagoda - symbolizes peace, compassion and the noble exemplary qualities of the Buddha.
Taoism • 1) “Tao-te-ching” - “Book of the Way” , Simplicity, spontaneity, tenderness, and tranquility. Avoid “Competition, possession and even the pursuit of knowledge . Evils - War, punishment, taxation, and ceremonial ostentation 2) The best government is the least government • 3) Taoism became a cult of the masses, Lao-Tsu is god which himself would have disapproved. 4)A sort of Taoist witchcraft emerged Feng Shui- harmony with nature • “Feng” means Winds, “Shui” means Water • Consult with “geomancers” for doing everything, including building houses, naming the business, garden layout, location of the stores, highway systems, president’s palace, maybe …The White House facing • Lamanism
No Pork Chop Christianity in Europe Source: J.F. Simoon, Not Eat This Flesh
Judaism • Moses led Jews from Egypt to Canaan, then split into two branches; Israel and Judah, both conquered by other nations. Roman destroyed Jerusalem in A.D. 70. Ashkenazim - Central Europe, Sephardim - N. Africa and Iberian Peninsula • “Teaching of Abraham”, worship of only one god who had selected them to bear witness to this existence and his works • Elements from other religions - “Zoroastrianism” - paradise/hell, angels/devils, judgment day and resurrection • 19th Century, Reform tried to adjust to current times, Orthodox retained the old precepts, Conservative came in between as mediator • Zionism - searches for a homeland for Jewish
Christianity • Before Emperor Constantine’s conversion in 312, Christianity faced the same obstacle as Judaism did. • 1) Rome fell and broke into two part; western part, centered on Rome with hard time, eastern part centered on Constantinople (Istanbul in Turkey) was the focus. Christianity radiated into Balkan Peninsula. 2)Roman Catholicism arose in the Middle Ages. 3)15 and 16th century, Luther,Calvin initialized the Protestant movement Diffusion of Christianity • 1) With relocation diffusion and reached peak during European colonialism in 16th century 2) Spain invaded Mid and South American brought Catholic faith. Catholicism to Congo, Angola, and Mocambique and Philippines. 3) Protestant refugees came to N. America
Cultural Landscape:..Cathedral - focus of life, surrounded by other buildings in Medieval Europe. A reminders of the region’s Roman Catholic-dominated history..Protestant’s church can only be identified by a sign now days. Washington National Cathedral
Confucianism • Confucius - born 551-479 b.c. 1) Present life is more important than the future life, 2) Urged poor to assert themselves, 3) human virtues and abilities to determine one’s position in society 4) educated the landless and the weak 5) disliked supernatural mysticism 6) Confucian Classics - guide for Chinese civilization
Making a triad with Heaven and Earth View from inside of main building
Matzu -Goddess of the Sea and Empress of Heaven, Goddess of Peace • Matsu, originally named Lin Mo Niang (silent girl) was born in 960 AD near Meizhou Bay in Fujien Province, China. She is revered by sea faring people in Mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore. Matsu has become much more than the patron saint of fishermen--she is one of the most venerated deities in the Chinese pantheon. Her birthday on the 3rd month, 23rd day of the Chinese calendar is celebrated in Taiwan's hundreds of Matsu temples. Because she is a powerful female deity and was supposedly visited by Kuan Yin herself, she is often associated with Kuan Yin, the goddess of mercy. Matsu's face is generally black, and her face is shaded with a beaded veil.
Issues in cemeteries and funerals • Christian faiths bury their dead while Hindus, Buddhists, and Shintoists cremate the dead • Decoration of graves/elaborate rituals and in parklike cemeteries • Significant economic enterprise in Western cultures - cemeteries and funeral business
Hanging Coffins in China Minority “Ba” people - buried their dead by suspending the coffins on the cliff faces • so that they were closer to the heavens.
Islam -the youngest of the major religions • Koran - holy book. There is only one god occasionally reveals himself through prophet, Jesus was such a prophet, only Allah is pure. Muhammad, born in A.D. 571, Allah chose him to be a prophet Observe “five pillars” • 1) Repeated expressions of the basic creed, 2)frequent prayer 3)a month of daytime fasting 4)almsgiving • 5) at least one pilgrimage to Mecca • Other Rules: 1) No alcohol, smoking, and gambling • 2) Polygamy was tolerated, but monogamy was preferred • 3)Arab world was transformed into Muslim world overnight
Fundamentalist Islam - Taliban • All non-Muslims in Afghanistan must wear identification tags. • Taliban forces destroyed two 2,000-year-old statues of Buddha that survived even the 13th-century onslaught of Genghis Khan. • Women have been forbidden from working, even for United Nations relief agencies, and must be covered from head to toe when outside their homes. Women also face health care restrictions. • Banned activities include watching television, dancing, photography and kite flying. • Eight foreign aid workers, including two Americans, currently are on trial in Kabul on charges of preaching Christianity.
Shiite minority (13%) - Shiah centered in Iran • Idealism and the supernatural • Imam - sole source of true knowledge Two Muslims • Orthodox Sunni • Practicality and Earthly knowledge • Family and community help you solve problems • Muslim Population • 1.2 billion, estimated from CAIR (Council on American-Islamic relations) • represents about 22%, next to 33% of Christianity • 2.9% growth rate (faster than the world population growth rate-2.3%
Diffusion/Cultural Landscape • Expansion diffusion - spread of Islam from it Arabian source area • Relocation diffusion - dispersal to Malaysia, Indonesia, S. Africa, and the New World • Mosques - elaborate, ornate, and magnificently designed • Muslim architecture represents the unifying concept of Islamic monotheism: the perfection and vastness of the spirit of Allah • http://www.islamicity.org/mosque/ihame/Sec12.htm
Just Two Words -1 There once was a monastery that was very strict. Following a vow of silence, no one was allowed to speak at all. But there was one exception to this rule. Every ten years, the monks were permitted to speak just two words. After spending his first ten years at the monastery, one monk went to the head monk. "It has been ten years," said the head monk. "What are the two words you would like to speak?" "Bed... hard..." said the monk. "I see," replied the head monk.
Just Two Words -2 Ten years later, the monk returned to the head monk's office. "It has been ten more years," said the head monk. "What are the two words you would like to speak?" "Food... stinks..." said the monk. "I see," replied the head monk. Yet another ten years passed and the monk once again met with the head monk who asked, "What are your two words now, after these ten years?" "I... quit!" said the monk. "Well, I can see why," replied the head monk. "All you ever do is complain."
Just Two Words - 3 YouGuys … StudyHard