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FIVE FUNCTIONS OF LANGUAGE

FIVE FUNCTIONS OF LANGUAGE

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FIVE FUNCTIONS OF LANGUAGE

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  1. FIVE FUNCTIONS OF LANGUAGE Informational (to convey information) Expressive (to express emotions) Directive (to give orders, commands) Aesthetic (to create artistic effect) Phatic (to maintain social bonds)

  2. Purr words Democratic, freedom, human rights, fatherland, equality. e.g.Bush’s war against Iraq labelled as “enduring fredom”

  3. Euphemism ( referring to something offensive or delicate, making it sound more pleasant) • Lavatory: privy,water-closet, toilet, restroom, comfort station. • Undeveloped countries: Developing countries Emergent nations

  4. Snarl words (denigratory words) • Communist, • Fascist, • Nigger, • Yank, • jap, • red……

  5. Conceptual engineering • Violence : because of its bad associations, any public justification of political activities which lead to physical force must maintain the thesis that “our actions are not violent”, so other words are used, such as: force military action

  6. Directive language (directing or influencing the behaviour of others as in propaganda) capitalizes on the affective and associative power of words, with the result that conceptual meaning is manipulated.

  7. Sociolinguistics • Ethnolinguistics • Anthropological linguistics • Sociological liguistics • Stylistics • Social psychology

  8. Sociolinguistics • It studies language’s structure changes in response to its different social functions. • Race • Nationality • Regional,social & polit. groups • Interactions of individuals within groups.

  9. Ethnolinguistics • It refers to the problems of ethnic groups. • It deals with the liguistic consequences of immigration.

  10. Anthropological linguistics (studying primitive cultures). • Sociological linguistics (studying “more advanced” political political units).

  11. Stylistics • Distinctive linguistic characteristics of small social groups, literary expression of a community.

  12. Psycholinguistics • Language acquisition in children. • Language pathology • Speech disability • Doctor-patient, or nurse-patient relationship • Business management (absence of effective communication between employers and staff lead to trouble).