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Mongolian National Folklore Ensemble, “Praise of Altai Mountains,” Voices of the Steppe

Mongolian National Folklore Ensemble, “Praise of Altai Mountains,” Voices of the Steppe

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Mongolian National Folklore Ensemble, “Praise of Altai Mountains,” Voices of the Steppe

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  1. Mongolian National Folklore Ensemble, “Praise of Altai Mountains,” Voices of the Steppe

  2. The Rise of the Mongols

  3. The East Asian Cycle of Relations between Nomads and Settled Peoples • Steppe peoples need goods produced by settled agriculturists • Settled agriculturists have some use for steppe goods

  4. Strong Chinese state, plus a strong steppe empire, followed by, • Simultaneous collapse, followed by,

  5. Conquest of North China by a foreign (Manchurian) dynasty, followed by, • Restoration of native Chinese dynasty and rise of a Steppe Empire

  6. Ch’in and Han (221 BC- 220 AD) Sui and T’ang (581-907) Sung (960-1279) Hsiung-nu (209 BC - 153 AD First Turkish, Second Turkish, Third Turkish (552-840) Mongols

  7. Chingiz Khan’s Unusual Rise • Usual paths to power in the steppe • Hereditary rulers of established and united tribes • Reorganizers of a disintegrating nomadic state • Election

  8. Chingiz Khan’s Unusual Rise - 2 • Chingiz does not fit these patterns • His tribe is often disloyal • Not a secondary founder of a decaying nomadic state • Not elected, until already master of the steppe

  9. The Bases of Chingiz’s Power • Personal followers (nökod) • Distrust of relatives • Requires daring military feats • The army • Cuts across tribal lines • Personal guard • An artificial tribe • 1206: a critical juncture

  10. War with China • 1211: massive raids in North China • Failure of the raids • Adoption of Chinese military technology • Policy of conquest

  11. The Dar al-Islam • Khwarazam-shah (‘Ala’ al-Din Muhammad II) • Weakness of the shah’s position • Army (composed of Qipchaq Turks) unreliable • Poor relations with Persians • Poor relations with the Sunni ulema • The Caliphate, dominant in Iraq • Saljuq Turks

  12. The Turn West • Conquest of Kara-Khitai, 1218 • Conquest of Transoxiana and Khurasan, 1219 • Mongol policies • Systematic massacre: Herat, Nishapur, etc. • Goal punishment, not conquest • Russia and the battle of the Kalka, 1223

  13. The Turn West • Conquest of Kara-Khitai, 1218 • Conquest of Transoxiana and Khurasan, 1219 • Mongol policies • Systematic massacre: Heart, Nishapur, etc. • Goal punishment, not conquest • Russia and the battle of the Kalka, 1223

  14. From Raids to Conquest • Conquest of Russia, 1236-1242 • Push into central Europe • The White, or “Golden” Horde • Iran and Mesopotamia • Hülegü • Baghdad 1258 • Damascus, 1260 • China , 1279