Safety in Small to Medium Enterprises Sean Mahar, PhD, CIH, CSP, PE
Important legislation • The Health and Safety at Work etc. Act • Management of Health and Safety at Work • Control of Substances Hazardous to Health • The Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations • Workplace health, safety and welfare
Risk Assessment • Council Directive 89/391/EEC • Management of Health and Safety at Work 1999 • Control of Substances Hazardous to Health 2002 (COSHH)
Hazard and Risk • Hazard: the inherent potential to cause harm or injury • Risk: the likelihood of harm or injury arising from a hazard
Hazard and Risk • Hazard is the potential • Risk is the likelihood
Risk Assessment Council Directive 89/391/EEC Article 9,Various obligations on employers The employer shall be in possession of an assessment of the risks to safety and health at work, including those facing groups of workers exposed to particular risks;
Risk Assessment Management of Health and Safety at Work 1999 Regulation 3 Risk Assessment, requires employers to make a suitable and sufficient assessment of risks to the health and safety of their employees whilst at work
Risk Assessment Control of Substances Hazardous to Health 2002 (COSHH) Regulation 6Risk Assessment, requires employers to make a suitable and sufficient assessment of risks to the health and safety of their employees whilst at work
Risk Assessment A "suitable and sufficient" assessment: • correctly identifies any significant risk that is reasonably foreseeable • enables the assessor to decide what action needs to be taken, and what the priorities should be • is appropriate for the type of activity
Risk Assessment • remains valid for a reasonable time • reflects what employers may reasonably practicably be expected to know about the risks associated with their undertaking.
Risk Assessment It should: • disregard inconsequential risks and those trivial risks associated with life in general • determine the likelihood of injury or harm arising
Risk Assessment • quantify the severity of the consequences and the numbers of people who would be affected • take into account any existing control measures • identify any specific legal duty or requirement relating to the hazard
Risk Assessment • remain valid for a reasonable period of time • provide sufficient information to enable the employer to decide upon appropriate control measures, taking into account the latest scientific developments and advances • enable the employer to prioritise remedial measures
Risk Assessment • Look for the hazards • Decide who might be harmed and how • Evaluate the risks and decide whether the existing precautions are adequate or whether more should be done • Record your findings • Review your assessment and revise it if necessary
Hazard • Look only for hazards which you could reasonably expect to result in significant harm under the conditions in your workplace.
Hazards • slipping/tripping hazards (eg poorly maintained floors or stairs) • fire (eg from flammable materials) • chemicals (eg essentail oils) • electricity (eg poor wiring) • manual handling • poor lighting
Review and revision If there is any significant change, add to the assessment to take account of the new hazard, eg when bringing in new • machines • substances • procedures may introduce significant new hazards.
COSHH Risk Assessment The risk assessment shall include consideration of - • the hazardous properties of the substance; • information on health effects provided by the supplier, including information contained in any relevant safety data sheet;
COSHH Risk Assessment • the level, type and duration of exposure; • the circumstances of the work, including the amount of the substance involved; • activities, such as maintenance, where there is the potential for a high level of exposure;
COSHH Risk Assessment • any relevant occupational exposure standard, maximum exposure limit or similar occupational exposure limit; • the effect of preventive and control measures which have been or will be taken in accordance with regulation 7;
COSHH Risk Assessment • in circumstances where the work will involve exposure to more than one substance hazardous to health, the risk presented by exposure to such substances in combination; • the approved classification of any biological agent;
Gathering Information • Identification of relevant hazardous substances including intermediate products. • General sources of information - texts, journals, microfiche and computer databases, HSE, trade literature, other.
Gathering Information • Specific sources of information - data sheets, requirement for suppliers to provide information, The Chemicals (Hazard Information and Packaging for Supply) Regulations 2002, Interpretation of safety data sheets. Use of specialist advice.
Gather information Thehazardous substances used or produced (chemical, biological), includingintermediates (substances inventory). NB. the problem of trade names, mixtures.
Sources of information • HSE EH Series • The Chemical(Hazard Information and Packaging For Supply) Regulations 2002 • Computerdatabases • Journals • Trade literature.
Databases The Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory Oxford University Chemical and Other Safety Information http://physchem.ox.ac.uk/MSDS/#MSDS
Databases University of Bristol School of Chemistry Material Safety Data Sheets www.tlchm.bris.ac.uk/safety/msds.htm
CHIP The Chemicals (Hazard Information and Packaging for Supply) Regulations 2002 • Part I - Preliminary • Part2 - General requirements • Part3 - Miscellaneous
CHIP General requirements • Classification of dangerous substances and dangerous preparations. • Safety data sheets for dangerous substances, dangerous preparations and certain other preparations. • Advertisements for dangerous substances and dangerous preparations.
CHIP General requirements • Packaging of dangerous substances and dangerous preparations. • Labelling of dangerous substances and dangerous preparations. • Particular labelling requirements for certain preparations.
CHIP General requirements • Methods of marking or labelling packages. • Child resistant fastenings, tactile warning devices and other consumer protection measures. • Retention of data for dangerous preparations.
CHIP www.hse.gov.uk/chip/phrases.htm • Abbreviation/description of hazard • Risk phrases • Safety phrases • Symbols
CHIP categories • Physicochemical Properties • Health Effects • Environmental Effects
Explosive (E) Chemicals that explode
Oxidising (O) Chemicals that react exothermically with other chemicals
Extremely Flammable (F+) Chemicals that have an extremely low flash point and boiling point, and gases that catch fire in contact with air
HighlyFlammable (F) Chemicals that may catch fire in contact with air, only need brief contact with an ignition source, have a very low flash point or evolve highly flammable gases in contact with water
Very toxic (T+) Substances and preparations which in very low quantities cause death or acute or chronic damage to health when inhaled, swallowed or absorbed via the skin.
Toxic (T) Substances and preparations which in low quantities cause death or acute or chronic damage to health when inhaled, swallowed or absorbed via the skin.
Harmful (Xn) Substances and preparations which may cause death or acute or chronic damage to health when inhaled, swallowed or absorbed via the skin.
Sensitising (Xi, Xn) Substances and preparations which, if they are inhaled or if they penetrate the skin, are capable of eliciting a reaction by hypersensitization such that on further exposure to the substance or preparation, characteristic adverse effects are produced.
Dangerous for the environment (N) Substances and preparations which, were they to enter into the environment, would present or might present an immediate or delayed danger for one or more components of the environment.
Physicochemical Properties Explosive can explode Oxidising react exothermically with other chemicals Extremely flammable extremely low flash point and boiling point, and gases that catch fire in contact with air
Physicochemical Properties Highly flammable may catch fire in contact with air, only need brief contact with an ignition source, have a very low flash point or evolve highly flammable gases in contact with water
Health Very toxiccause damage to health at very low levels Toxic cause damage to health at low levels Carcinogenmay cause cancer or increase its incidence