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Unit Four American Dream

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  1. Unit Four American Dream Wujing

  2. I. Lead-in Questions

  3. 1.What is American Dream in your eyes? 2. In you opinion, how can a person obtain success? 3. What’s your dream?

  4. II. Cultural Notes 1.American Deam: 2. Depression Days

  5. American Dream: a term used to describe the US ideal according to which equality of opportunity allows any American to aspire to high attainment and material success

  6. Depression Days the period of the worldwide economic failure, which lasted from 1929 until the World War II. The depression put millions of people out of work in the US. Franklin D. Roosevelt won the 1932 election and varied out the New Deal to improve the economy. Full recovery from the depression was brought about by America’s entry into World War II.

  7. III. Language Points

  8. Words 1.mow v. cut (grass, etc.) using a machine with blades or a scythe> 修剪(草坪等), 收割 eg: mow the lawn修剪草坪 mow a field 收割土地 mow somebody down: <kill somebody in large numbers> 扫杀 eg: The soldiers were mown down by machine-gun fire. 士兵被机枪扫杀。 To mow down enemy troops and take their position. 催锋陷阵。

  9. Words 2.comprehend v. understand fully 理解 eg: His problem lies in failing to comprehend the full seriousness of the situation. 他的问题在于没有理解形势的严峻。 I could comprehend the feeling, and share both its strength and truth. 我可以理解这种感情,而且分享它的力量和真诚。。

  10. Words 【扩展衍生词】 Comprehensionn. above/ beyond one’s comprehension 超出某人的理解能力 Comprehensive a.全面的,综合的 comprehensive school

  11. Words 3.assume v. 1) suppose 假定,假设 eg: Digital products regularly assume that people are technology literate . 数字产品往往假设人们非常了解技术 For a number of reasons, we assume that such life does exist. 由于某些原因,我们假设这种生命确实是存在的。

  12. Words 2) pretend 假装 eg: The look of being wronged she assume had us all fooled. 她装出无辜的样子吧我们都愚弄了。 He began to put on side and to assume airs of authority. 他渐渐摆起架子来,装出一副威风凛凛的样子。

  13. Words 【扩展衍生词】 Assumption n. 1) thing accepted as true or as sure to happen, but not proved 假定;假设 eg: The theory is based on a series of wrong assumptions. 这一理论是以一系列错误的设想为根据的。 We are working on the assumptionthat the rate of inflation will not increase next year. 我们在假定明年通货膨胀率不增加的情况下工作。

  14. Words 【扩展衍生词】 Assumption 2) ~ of sth. act of displaying (insincere feeling, etc.) 假装;显示出(假情假意) eg: Their assumption of an air of confidence fooled nobody. 他们装出信心十足的样子却欺骗不了任何人。 Her assumption of a manner makes him happy. 她假惺惺的行为让他很高兴。

  15. Words 【扩展衍生词】 assumes假定,假设 presumes假定,推测 consumes 消耗,消费 resumes 中断之后重新开始

  16. Words 4.compliment vt. praise赞扬,恭维 eg: Bob complimented me on my new hairstyle. 鲍勃恭维我的新发型。 I complimented her on her skillful performance. 我钦佩她娴熟的技艺。

  17. Words n. expression og praise, admiration, approval,etc.赞美的话,致意, 问候, 道贺 eg: Your presence is a great compliment. 承蒙光临, 不胜荣幸。 A sincere compliment boosts one's morale. 由衷的称赞可鼓舞一个人的精神。

  18. Words 【扩展衍生词】 complement vt. combine well (and often constrastingly) with (sth) to forma whole与(某事物)结合(相辅相成) eg: The two suggestions complement each other. 这两条建议相互补充。 His business skill complements her flair for design. 他的经营技巧和她的设计才能相辅相成。

  19. Words 【扩展衍生词】 complement n. 1) things that goes well orsuitable with sth. else, or make it complete补充物;需要的数额 eg:Rice makes an excellent complement to a curry dish. 有咖喱的菜配米饭最棒。 We've taken on our full complement of new trainees. 我们招收的新学员已经满额了。

  20. Words 5. capacity n. : 1) ability to hold of containing sth 容积,容量 eg: This theatre has a seating capacity of 1,000 people. 这个剧院可以容纳1000人。 The room is filled to capacity. 屋子全满。

  21. Words 2) ability to produce, experience, understand or learn something 能力 eg: He has the capacity for language. (or capacity of doing something ) 他有语言才能。 She has an enormous capacity for hard work. 她有苦干的巨大才能。 capable a. having ability; able有能力的 be capable of doing something eg: She is a very capable woman. 她是一个很能干的女子。 He is capable of running a mile in four minutes. 他能用四分钟跑完一英里。

  22. Words 【扩展衍生词】 辨析: ability, capability& capacity ability 指某人做某事的能力, 这种能力可以通过学习锻炼而提高。 Capability 指人的潜在能力,跟介词 of Capacity 指人学习,理解或接受能力, 可跟不定式, for 或者of。

  23. Words 6. graduate v. complete a course for a degree 毕业 eg: She graduated from Cambridge. 她毕业于剑桥。 She graduates in law. 她毕业于法学系。 n. person who holds a degree毕业生 eg: I am a law graduate. 我是一名法学系毕业生。 She’s a graduate of Oxford. 她是牛津大学毕业生。

  24. Words 【扩展衍生词】 undergraduate: college student who has not yet taken his first degree ( freshman, sophomore, junior, senior) 在校生 graduate (Bachelor of Arts/ Science B.A/B.S )本科生 postgraduate (Master of Arts / Science M.A/M.S ) 硕士生(Ph. D)

  25. Words 7. loan v. lend 借 eg: Our school library loans books, CDs and videotapes. 我们学校图书馆借书,CD和录影带。 The bank loans money to some small businesses. 银行借款给一些小企业。 n. thing that is lent, espa sum of money借款 eg: I’m only asking for a loan --- I’ll pay you back. 我只要求借款——日后一定奉还。 These works of an are too brittle to be loaned out for exhibitions. 这些艺术品太容易损坏,不能借出去展览。

  26. Words 8. mortgage v. give somebody the legal right to take possession of as a security for payment of money lent 抵押 eg: He mortgaged his house in order to start a business. 他把房子做抵押以便能开间公司。 The house is martgaged to the bank for $ 30,000. 这所房子以及那个以30000美元向银行做了抵押。

  27. Words n. agreement in which money is lent by a building society, bank, etc fr buying a house or other property, the property being the security 抵押 eg: It’s difficult to get a mrtgage on an old house. 以旧房子作抵押很难获准。 She is applying for a mortgage. 她正在申请抵押事宜。

  28. Words 【扩展衍生词】 Mortgagee: person that lends money 受抵押人 Mortgagor: person that borrows money 抵押者

  29. Words 9. spot v. pick out; catch sight of; recognize 找出,辨出,认出 eg: He finally spotted just the shirt he wanted. 他最后找到了他想要的衬衫。 She spotted her friend in the crowd. 她在人群中认出了她的朋友。

  30. Words n. 1) small mark defferent in colour, texture, etc from the surface it is on 斑点 eg: Which has spots, the leopard or the tiger? 豹跟虎哪一个身上有斑点? a white skirt with red spots 白底红点的裙子 2) particular place or area 场所,地点 eg: It is a nice picnic spot. 这是野餐的好去处。 a well-known beauty spot   风景胜地

  31. Words 3) stain 污点 Eg: Mother cleaned off ink spots with soap and water. 母亲用肥皂和水清洗墨水渍。 spots of mud on your trouses 你裤子上的泥斑

  32. Words 10. confidence n. the quality of being certain of your abilities or trusting other people, plan, etc.信任,信心 eg: He gained voters’ confidence by running an honest, straightforward campaign. 他通过诚实坦率的竞选而取得选民的信任。 Jack lacks confidence in his ability to do the job. 杰克对自己完成这项工作地能力没有信心。

  33. Words 【扩展衍生词】 Confide v. tell (a secret) to sb. 向某人吐露(秘密)~ to somebody吐露(秘密) eg: He confided his secret to me. 他把秘密告诉了我。 She confided her troubles to a friend. 她向朋友倾吐了内心的烦恼。

  34. Words 【扩展衍生词】 Confident a. (of ,about) feeling or showing trust in oneself or one’s ability 自信的,有信心的 eg: a confident smile, manner, speech 显示信心的微笑、态度、讲话等 He is confident of his victory. 他对胜利充满信心。

  35. Words 【扩展衍生词】 Confidential a. to be kept secret机密的;亲密的 eg: confidential information, files, letters 机密情报、文件、信任 confidential secretary 机要秘书

  36. Words 11. diet n. 1) food and drink 饮食 eg: Too rich a diet is not good for you. 吃太油腻的食物对你身体不好。 the Japanese diet of rice, vegetable and fish 米、蔬菜、鱼等日本人常吃的食物

  37. Words 2) limited variety or amount of food that a person is allowed to eat, eg for medical reasons or in order to lose weight 限定的食物种类,规定食谱 Eg: a salt-free diet 无盐食谱 diet aids 食疗

  38. Words 3) (be/ go put sb.)on a diet allowed to eat only some foods or a little food, because of illness or to lose weight 节食 Eg: She is on a diet now. 她目前在节食。 The doctor says I’ve got to go on a diet. 医生说我得节食。

  39. Words 12. abandon v. 1) go away, desert离弃,离开 eg: an abandoned car 被抛弃的汽车 The captain gave orders to abandon ship. 船长下令弃船。

  40. Words 2) give up completely 放弃 Eg: The task of this committee is to urge the people who smoke to abandon the habit. 这个委员会的任务是催促吸烟的人放弃吸烟。 Lu Xun abandoned medicine for literature. 鲁迅弃医从文。

  41. Words 3)abandon oneself to yield completely to (an emmotion or impulse)完全屈从于(某种情感或冲动) Eg: He abandonedhimself to despair. 他陷入绝望中。 They abandon themselves to drinking. 他们沉湎于饮酒。

  42. Words abandon, desert& discard abandon:丢弃,放弃,使之任人摆布 desert: 丢弃,舍弃,违背诺言; 使地方荒芜 discard:除去(因为无用) e.g. 1) My friend deserted me when I was poor. 2). The woman was afraid to walk along a deserted street. 3) The scientist abandoned his research for lack of fund 4) The worn hat was discarded.

  43. Words 13.sponsor n. 1) person who makes himself responsible for another person or firm 担保人 eg: Nike is one of the biggest sponsors for Olympic Games. 耐克是奥运会最大的赞助人之一。 class sponsor班主任 v. act as a sponsor for somebody 担保,赞助 eg: The exhibition was sponsored by the Society of Culture. 这个展览会是由文化学会主办的 The United States sponsored the important meeting. 美国主办了那次重要的会议。

  44. Words 14. approach v. come near in space or time 接近,临近 eg: Christmas is approaching. 圣诞节临近。 As you approach the town the first building you see is the church. 接近那座城镇的时候,首先看到的就是教堂。

  45. Words • Approachable • (of people or things) that can be approached (指人或物)可接近的 • Eg: The village is only approachable from the south. • 这个村子只有从南边才能到达。

  46. Words 15. principle n. guiding rule for behavior; basic truth 原则,原理 eg: He is quite without principle. 他完全没有道德观念。 We are striving for peaceful coexistence with countries of different social systems on the basis of Five Principles. 在和平共处五项原则的基础上我们和不同的社会的体制和平相处

  47. Words Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence和平共处五项原则: mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity 互相尊重主权和领土完整 mutual non-aggression互不侵犯 non-interference in each other’s internal affairs互不干涉内政 equality and mutual benefit平等互利 peaceful coexistence 和平共处

  48. Words 形近词: principle 原则,原理 principal a. 主要的,首要的& n 校长,首长,负责人

  49. Words 16.optimism n. tendency to expect the best in all things, confidence in success乐观主义,乐观精神 eg: He was full of optimism for the future despite his many problems. 他尽管有许多问题,但对未来仍十分乐观。 There was a feeling of optimism in the country when the new government was elected. 经选举产生新政府,举国上下对前景十分乐观。 Optimist n. 乐观主义者 Optimistic a. 乐观的,有信心的(about) 反义词:pessimism 悲观主义 (pessimist, pessimistic )

  50. Phrases 1.turn away :refuse to allow somebody enter a place, refuse to give help or support to somebody拒绝 Eg: A doctor cannot turn away a dying man. 医生不能拒绝一个将死的人。 Hundreds of people had to be turned away from the stadium. 数以百计的人被体育场拒之门外。