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    2. Background Of The WRAML2 The construction of the WRAML2 was guided by influences from the cognitive, neuropsychological, and developmental traditions. The Wide Range Assessment Of Memory And Learning (WRAML) was released in 1990, it was the first well normed and standardized test battery that could be used to assess memory abilities in children. The WRAML was revised in 2003, to become the WRAML2 created by David Sheslow and Wayne Adams.

    3. Major Modifications Made In The Revision Of WRAML

    4. What WRAML2 is designed to assess Memory ability in children and adults. Clinical assessment of immediate and delayed recall of verbal and visual memory, and provides a global memory performance estimate.

    5. Population for which the test was designed Age range: 5 - 85 plus years

    6. Core components of WRAML2 Verbal memory index Story memory subtest Verbal learning subtest Visual memory index Design memory subtest Picture memory subtest Attention/concentration index Finger windows subtest Number/letter subtest Combined these three core indexes form the general memory index (GMI)

    7. Verbal Memory Index Story Memory Subtest This subtest evaluates auditory memory of extended meaningful verbal material. Example: listening to a lecture, or reading text in books. Procedure: two short stories are read to the participant who following each, is asked to orally recall as much of the story that they can remember. Some information needs to be remembered verbatim to get credit while others only need to be paraphrased. Scoring: One point is awarded for each correct response. It does not matter in what order the information is recalled. The total number of correct responses from both stories constitutes the Total Score for this subtest.

    8. Verbal Memory Index Verbal Learning Subtest This subtest evaluates auditory memory of meaningful verbal information that is without context. The task evaluates a client’s ability to actively learn new, relatively unrelated verbal information. Example: thirteen original U.S. colonies. Procedure: the evaluator reads the participant a list of common, single-syllable words followed by an immediate free recall trial. Eight and younger: 13 words Nine plus: 16 words Scoring: One point is awarded for each correctly recalled word within each trial. A sum for each trial is obtained and a total across the four trials is computed. This total number of recalled words is the Total Score for this subtest.

    9. Visual Memory Index Design Memory Subtest This subtest evaluates short-term visual retention of semi-meaningful visual information by using a brief exposure to simple geometric shapes and then having the client redraw them in their proper locations. The task evaluates a client’s ability to remember new, relatively unrelated visual information. Example: a first grader copying from the board. Subtest procedure: one at a time, five 4 X 6 inch cards with multiple, simple geometric forms are each presented for a 5-second exposure. After each card’s exposure there is a 10-second delay, and then the participant is asked to draw what he/she remembers. Scoring: In scoring this subtest, should you be uncertain about the accuracy of the drawing, the scoring should favor the Participant. Unless stated in the scoring criteria, do not score direction or rotation errors as incorrect. Each correct response is rewarded a point.

    10. Visual Memory Index Picture Memory Subtest This subtest evaluates visual memory using skills to detect changes in specific features or details, specifically, four different “familiar” scenes. The task evaluates a client’s ability to remember new, contextually related visual information. Example: remembering visual content from a room just visited. Subtest procedure: The participant is shown a colorful, everyday scene that he/she can scan for ten seconds before it is removed. Then a similar alternate scene is immediately presented and the participant must determine the elements that have been moved, changed, or added. Scoring: Participants receive one point for each correctly identified item on each picture. The total number of points earned for all four pictures comprises the total score for this subtest.

    11. Attention/Concentration Index Finger Windows Subtest This subtest evaluates short-term memory of rote, visual sequential pattern. The task evaluates a client’s ability to actively remember rote and sequential visual information. Example: Trying to remember a route found on a map. Subtest procedure: The participant shows memory of a demonstrated visual pattern using a 8 X 11-inch plastic template containing nine asymmetrically located holes. The examiner models a given sequence of holes and asks the participant to imitate the sequence by placing his/her finger through the same holes in the correct order. Scoring: Award one point for each correct sequence. The total number of correct sequences constitutes the total score for this subtest.

    12. Attention/Concentration Index Number Letter Subtest This subtest evaluates a client’s ability to remember sequential, rote auditory information using the familiar digit-span format. This task uses letters as well as digits. Example: a new phone number you try to remember before writing it down. Subtest procedure: The Number Letter subtest requires the participant to repeat a sequence of single digits and letters orally presented by the examiner. Scoring: One point is given for each totally correct response.

    13. Optional Subtests Of The WRAML2 Working Memory Index Verbal Working Memory Sound Symbol Visual Working Memory Sentence Memory Recognition Index Delay Recall Subtests Story Memory Recognition Story Memory Delay Recall Verbal Learning Recognition Verbal Learning Delay Recall Design Memory Recognition Sound Symbol Delay Recall Picture Memory Recognition

    14. Optional WRAML2 Subtests Sentence Memory Subtest This subtest measures verbal short-term memory for words in context. Subtest procedure: The examiner asks the participant to repeat one sentence immediately after it is read. Sentences vary in length from 2 – 26 words. Sound Symbol Subtest This subtest is a paired-associate task challenging the learner to remember what unique sound is associated with a unique nonsense shape. Subtest procedure: The subtest uses a small easel booklet that has a simple meaningless abstract symbol on each page. The examiner shows a symbol appearing on a page of the easel booklet, and then identifies its sound that the child repeats. The child is asked to try to recall that same sound when he/she sees the same symbol.

    15. Optional WRAML2 Subtests Working Memory Index Verbal Working Memory Subtest This subtest assesses verbal working memory using simple vocabulary and conceptual demands. Subtest Procedure: The verbal working memory subtest has two difficult levels A and B for kids 9 to 13 years old. Tasks B and C are administered to those older than 13 years. Task A the examiner reads a list of nouns consisting of animals and inanimate objects, the client is asked to restate the list always listing the animals first. Levels B and C increase in complexity. Symbolic Working Memory Subtest This subtest assesses a combination of verbal and visual working memory using the symbol systems of numbers and letters. Subtest Procedure: The symbolic working memory subtest is completed by the client using a nonverbal response (pointing). This subtest has two parts. For the first part, the examiner dictates a random series of numbers and asks the client to point out the numbers in the correct numerical order. Task two, letters are involved.

    16. Optional WRAML2 Subtests Delay Recall and Recognition All of these subtests assess immediate memory, which is, the immediate recall after an initial exposure to visual or auditory information. Story memory recall and Story memory Recognition Subtests Subtest procedure: Approximately twenty minutes after administration of the original story memory subtest the client is asked to retell as much of each story as possible.

    17. Optional WRAML2 Subtests Verbal Learning Recall and Verbal Learning Recognition Subtests Subtest procedure: Approximately twenty minutes after administration of the verbal learning subtest, without warning, the client is asked to again recite the list of isolated words. Design Memory Recognition Subtest Subtest Procedure: About twenty minutes after performing the design memory subtest, the design memory recognition subtest may be administered. The client is shown consecutive pages on which appear numerous designs and she/he is asked to decide whether each design was or was not on the cards he/she saw earlier.

    18. Optional WRAML2 Subtests Picture Memory Recognition Subtest Subtest procedure: fifteen to twenty minutes following the original picture memory subtest, the client inspects mini-pictures and is asked whether the picture was part of a scene viewed earlier in the session.

    19. Reliability Of The WRAML2 Person and item separation reliabilities for each subtest of the WRAML2 Person reliabilities Core subtests range from .85 to .94 Optional subtests range from .56 to .93 These statistics give information about the test’s capacity to distinguish among a sample of persons on the basis of the total number of items answered correctly

    20. Reliability Of The WRAML2 Item separation reliabilities Six core subtests have item separation indices of either .99 or 1.00 Range of all subtests is .98 to 1.00 Item separation reliabilities indicate how well the items define the variable being measured. Standard scores of WRAML2: (M=100, SD=15) Subtest scaled scores: (M=10, SD=3)

    21. Reliability Of The WRAML2 Core Subtests

    22. Reliability Of The WRAML2 Optional Subtests

    23. Validity Of The WRAML2

    24. Interpretation Of The WRAML2 The standard errors of measurement are somewhat different for each of the core indexes. Verbal memory index generally showing the least variability Attention/concentration shows the most variability, especially for adults. Visual memory index, shows the greatest variability for the youngest participants General memory index, has less variability than any of it’s contributors.

    25. Interpretation Of The WRAML2 If the GMI is made up of index scores that are fairly close to each other, the GMI is the preferred statistic for reporting and interpretation. However, if there is significant variability between any of the three core indexes, then the GMI should probably be avoided as a summary statistic. Instead, the examiner should move to the next level of analysis, namely to the Verbal, Visual, and Attention/Concentration Index scores, despite their somewhat lower reliabilities.

    26. Interpretation Of The WRAML2

    27. Interpretation Of The WRAML2 The best strategy for selecting the soundest scores for interpretation is to use the test scores consisting of the most items. However, as the contributing scores increasingly differ, their average will increasingly misrepresent the client’s ability. The solution is to move down one interpretive level, although it causes decreased reliability. A twenty point difference between indexes seems substantial, although whether it will be noticeable clinically will likely depend on what the overall level of the client’s memory functioning is. Example: A person who achieves a Verbal Memory Index of 140 with a Visual Memory Index of 120 has differential memory ability on the test, but he/she may never notice the weakness in Visual memory because his/her weakness is at a level far above those in his/her age group.

    28. Weaknesses Of The WRAML2 Concerns about test length and high risk of measurement error, resulted in the omission of long-term memory assessment from the WRAML2. The WRAML2 was standardized assuming all core subtests would be administered, because of examiner time pressure and limited stamina in clients, it is common for examiners to administer only portions of this or other tests. While clinically, there doesn’t seem to be a difference, the reader is reminded that empirically, it is unknown how this may impact a clients scores.

    29. Weaknesses Of The WRAML2 Although carefully and broadly standardized in the United States, the verbal sections of the WRAML2 would not be appropriate for non-English speaking populations. WRAML2 has very high reliability coefficients, but the scores continue to contain error variance, and inflexible cutoffs or major alterations in interpretation based on slight score variations should be avoided.

    30. Strengths Of The WRAML2 The WRAML 2 provides reliable coverage of more different memory functions for this age range then is available in any other co-normed standardized format. Reliability Person reliabilities Core subtests range from .85-.94 Item separation reliabilities Range of all subtests .98-1.00

    31. References Adams, Wayne. Essentials of WRAML2 and TOMAL2 Assessment Essentials of Psychological Assessment Series. Sheslow, David., Adams, Wayne.(2001). WRAML2 Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning Second Edition; Administration and Technical Manual.