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Child Psychology

Child Psychology

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Child Psychology

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Presentation Transcript

  1. Child Psychology Late Adolescence Chapters 13 & 14 Physical, Cognitive, Social & Emotional Development

  2. Agenda • Health & safety issues • Cognitive development • Gender differences in self-esteem & gender research in general • Autonomy, sexuality, & consequences • Adolescent psychopathology

  3. Health & safety issues • Accidents • Homicides • Suicide • Sexually Transmitted Diseases

  4. Accidents & Homicide • First and second leading causes of death of 15-24 year-olds • Accidents • High rates of risky behaviors • New drivers = poor drivers • Homicide • US: highest homicide rate • Unable to plan & weigh consequences

  5. Suicide Risk Factors in Adolescents • A psychiatric problem, antisocial behavior, substance abuse • Belonging to a family with a history of suicide • Experiencing high levels of stress • Experiencing family problems or high levels of family conflict

  6. Sexually Transmitted Diseases • Diseases that may be transmitted from one person to another through sexual contact • Teen STD risk factors: • Multiple sexual partners rather than a single long-term relationship • Unprotected sexual intercourse • High-risk partners • AIDS • Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

  7. Cognitive Development • Social cognition • Thinking about people and interpersonal relationships • Social perspective taking • Understanding Other People’s Perspectives

  8. Gender Differences in Self-Esteem • Meta analysis • Purpose & techniques • Meta analysis: Gender Differences in Self-Esteem • Gender & self-esteem became an especially hot issue after AAUW study, followed by two widely read books • How big is the difference?

  9. Headlines

  10. Reviving Ophelia(94, 95 papback)

  11. Failing at Fairness(94, 95 papback)

  12. AAUW study data – Sadker

  13. No meta-analyses…until • O’Brien, Leitzel, Mensky, Jeffreys, O’Brien, & Marchese (1996). Gender differences in self-esteem among adolescents: A meta-analysis. 104th annual convention of the American Psychological Association, Toronto. • 129 effect sizes from 80 studies • two individuals rated each • represented 71,113 subjects • mean d value across studies was 0.20, 0.22 corrected for reliability of measures

  14. Theoretical overlap

  15. Military adolescent data

  16. Misconceptions about sex differences • Eagly, A. (1995) The science and politics of comparing men and women. American Psychologist, 50, 145-58. • Sex differences are small • Sex differences are quite inconsistent across studies • Sex-differences are artifactual • Sex-difference findings disconfirm gender stereotypes

  17. Misconceptions: sex differences • Sex differences are small • in general the findings with respect to sex differences are effects in the small to medium range that is fairly typical of psychological research generally • large effects are unusual in gender comparisons, as they are in psychological research generally. • Sex differences are inconsistent across studies • Inconsistencies across studies no more than is typical across many areas of psychological research • Growing awareness that just about everything we measure in psychology is context dependent in some way

  18. Misconceptions: sex differences • Sex-differences are artifactual • Publication bias for significant findings • Gender differences are often peripheral to main aims of study • Gender of author(s) – significant in some areas of social psychology (conformity & gender) not in meta-analysis of SE. • Sex-difference findings disconfirm gender stereotypes • Differences favor males in: • Aspects of visuospatial ability • Agentic behavior, dominant, controlling, independent • Females favored in: • Measures of verbal fluency • Communal behavior, socially sensitive, friendly, concerned with others welfare

  19. Conclusion • Gender differences research • Magnitude and consistency of differences across studies very similar to most areas of inquiry in psychology

  20. Development of Autonomy • Emotional autonomy • understands oneself as a person who is emotionally distinct from one's parents • Behavioral autonomy • can make and follow through with decisions regulating one's behavior • Values autonomy • makes judgments and choices about personal beliefs and principles • Factors that Contribute to Adolescent Autonomy

  21. Adolescent Sexual Development • Double standard • Adolescent contraceptive use success • information • acknowledging likelihood of sex • obtaining contraception • communication with partner • using correctly • Teen Pregnancy

  22. Adolescent Sexual Devel. (cont.) • Effective sex ed. programs: • communication, negotiation, and refusal skills • reduce behaviors leading to preg. or STDs • basic, accurate information • address social and media pressures re: sex • Adolescent parents often exhibit • Lack of knowledge about child development • Anxiousness and frustration about parenting • Little interaction with infants • Negative exchanges with their children • Negative attitudes toward parenting

  23. Problems of development • Delinquency • < 21 year olds account for 30% of arrests in US • Factors related to delinquency • Gender • Difficult temperament • Low intelligence • Peer rejection in childhood • Family environment • Prevention and treatment • Early and targeting parents, schools and communities • Treatments that work include teaching cognitive and social skills to assist in overcoming difficulties

  24. Problems (con’t) • Depression • Symptoms • Factors related to depression • Genetics • Parental depression (maladaptive parenting) • Learned helplessness • Gender differences • Suicide • Second or third leading cause of death • Gender differences

  25. Adolescent Psychopathology • Lewinsohn, P.M., Hops, H., Roberts, R.E., Seeley, J.R., & Andrews, J.A. (1993). Adolescent psychopathology: I. Prevalence and incidence of depression and other DSM-III-R disorders in high school students. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102(1), 133-144. • Randomly selected sample of high school students n=1,710 at point of entry and 1,508 at 1-yr follow-up • Western Oregon, Eugene area • Representative sample • Clinical interview • Very expensive study

  26. One year incidence

  27. Prevalence of disorders

  28. General findings • almost 10% - current psychiatric disorder • nearly 40% had experienced disorder during lifetime • females experienced greater incidence • most common: depression, anxiety disorders, substance abuse, and disruptive behavior disorders • indicates need for stronger prevention efforts