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Warm-Up – Use notes to answer…

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  1. Warm-Up – Use notes to answer… Who was the first ruler to use firearms effectively in battle in Japan? • Tokugawa Ieyasu • Kangxi • Oda Nobunaga • Hirohito The Tokugawa Shogunate was a type of • Cultural institution • Military government • Religious authority • Commercial partnership or organization

  2. Seppuku-the honorable method of taking one’s own life practiced by men of the samurai (military) class in feudal Japan. • The proper method was to plunge a short sword into the left side of the abdomen, draw the blade across to the right, and then turn it upward. It was considered exemplary form to stab again below the chest and press downward across the first cut, and then to pierce one’s throat. • There were two kinds of seppuku: voluntary and obligatory.

  3. AKS 41:The Muslim World Ottomans, Safavids, Mughals Chapter 18 – Pages 507-521

  4. Ottoman Empire:Osman (Othman) (1300-1326) • Ottoman Empire named for him • Established a small Muslim state in Anatolia

  5. Ottoman Empire:Mehmed II (1444-1446, 1451-1481) • Conquered Constantinople in 1453 – he renamed it Istanbul • Opened it to new citizens of many religions and backgrounds

  6. Ottoman Empire:Selim the Grim (1512-1520) • Defeated Safavids in 1514 at the Battle of Chaldiran • Captured Mecca, Medina, & Cairo (the intellectual center of Muslim world)

  7. Ottoman Empire:Suleyman the Lawgiver (1520-1566) Given the title of “Lawgiver” for simplifying the system of taxation, government reform, & cultural achievements

  8. Safavid Empire:Isma’il (1501-1524) • Conquered Persia (Iran) • Took title of “shah” (king) to celebrate • Lost Battle of Chaldiran to Selim of Ottoman Empire

  9. Safavid Empire:Tahmasp (1524-1576) • Adopted use of artillery with his military forces • Expanded Safavid up to Caucasus Mtns (NE of Turkey)

  10. Safavid Empire:Shah Abbas (1587-1629) • Reformed military & civilian life • Created 2 new armies loyal to him aloneto maintain empire • One army - Persians • One army recruited from Christian North • Both armies had artillery

  11. Mughal Empire:Babur (1494-1530) • Inherited kingdom – elders took it away & drove him south • Raised army, swept south into modern-day India – laid foundation for Mughal Empire

  12. “A monarch should ever be intent on conquest, otherwise his neighbors rise in arms against him.” - Akbar Mughal Empire:Akbar (1556-1605) • Also known as the “Great One” because he added more territory than any other Mughal emperor • Unified land of at least 100 million people • Equipped his army with heavy artillery • Turned enemies into allies

  13. Mughal Empire:Aurangzeb (1658-1707) • Master military strategist; aggressive empire builder • Expanded Mughal holdings to their greatest size, but power weakened during his reign

  14. Warm-Up Haiku is a type of • Riddle in Zen Buddhism • Ritual suicide • Fortified castle • Literature For which empire did Babur lay the foundation? • Mughal Empire • Safavid Empire • Ottoman Empire • Mongol Empire

  15. Ottoman Empire:Religion • Islam • Granted freedom of worship to Christians • Allowed religious community (millet) to follow its own religious laws & practices • Head of millets reported to sultan • Kept conflict among people of different religions to a minimum

  16. Ottoman Empire:Law • Followed Islamic law (Sharia) • Suleyman created a law code to handle criminal & civil actions

  17. Ottoman Empire:The Arts • Popular subjects – poetry, history, geography, astronomy, math, architecture • Art and literature flourished – similar to the European Renaissance • Combined with Turkish style (cultural blending)

  18. Safavid Empire:Religion • Tolerant of other religions • Abbas brought members of Christian religious orders into empire • Result: Europeans moved in – industry, trade, & art exchanges grew

  19. Safavid Empire:Law • Abbas reformed government • Punished corruption severely • Promoted only officials who proved competence & loyalty • Hired foreigners for government

  20. Safavid Empire:The Arts • Chinese artisans worked with Safavid artists - metalwork, mini paintings, calligraphy, glasswork, tile work, & pottery • Most Important: Persian carpets • Demand from the West turned it into an industry • Cultural blending everywhere

  21. Mughal Empire:Religion • Akbar (Muslim) – defended religious freedom • Proved tolerance by marrying wives of different religions • Abolished tax on Hindu pilgrims & non-Muslims

  22. Mughal Empire:Law • Bureaucracy • Natives & foreigners could hold high office • Tax policy successful (similar to U.S.) • Land policies had mixed results

  23. Mughal Empire:The Arts • Cultural blending common • Arts flourished, especially in the form of book illustrations (miniatures) • Shah Jahan built the Taj Mahal • In memory of his wife