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  1. Notes Have me check them in my office. They should be up to date as of the last class you attended. Value: 25 pts.

  2. FC. 85.1 THE FRAGMENTATION OF THE REFORMATION (1519-60) The Bible’symbolic language Printing Press spreads info quickly (FC.74) Luther successfully challenges the Church (FC.84) Different interpretations of its meaning Encourages more radical reformers People interpret Bible on their own Reformation quickly fragments into numerous Protestant faiths Huldreich Zwingli bases his religion on Bible, but goes further than Luther: Bans art & music from church service Denies transub-stantiation Makes Zurich a strict theocracy Aggressive missionary activity  War vs. Swiss Cath’s (1531)  Zwingli’s defeat & death Peace b/w Swiss Cath’s & Prot’s Zwinglianism influences Calvinism (FC.85.2) Henry VIII of England, needing legal heir, breaks gradually w/Cath. Church About 40 diff. sects known collectively as Anabaptists who believe in: Interpreting Bible more literally Baptism as adults rather than infants Direct inner revelations from God Takes power over Eng. clergy (1531) Cuts Church taxes to Rome (1532) Cuts power of Church courts (1533) Charges of heresy & rebellionPersecution Anabaptists flee to Spanish Netherland’s Religious unrest there Accepted in Eng. since it brought no big changes in religion & helped avoid another civil war over the succession Rev. of Sp. Neth’s Dutch indep (FC.87) Lets in more radic. Prot’s Eng. Rev. (FC.96)

  3. FC. 85.1 THE FRAGMENTATION OF THE REFORMATION (1519-60) Clarity of the Bible? The Bible’symbolic language

  4. FC. 85.1 THE FRAGMENTATION OF THE REFORMATION (1519-60) The Bible’symbolic language Different interpretations of its meaning Technology?

  5. The printing press

  6. FC. 85.1 THE FRAGMENTATION OF THE REFORMATION (1519-60) The Bible’symbolic language Printing Press spreads info quickly (FC.74) Different interpretations of its meaning People interpret Bible on their own Luther’s role?

  7. FC. 85.1 THE FRAGMENTATION OF THE REFORMATION (1519-60) The Bible’symbolic language Printing Press spreads info quickly (FC.74) Luther successfully challenges the Church (FC.84) Different interpretations of its meaning People interpret Bible on their own Did that make the Reformation more or less radical?

  8. FC. 85.1 THE FRAGMENTATION OF THE REFORMATION (1519-60) The Bible’symbolic language Printing Press spreads info quickly (FC.74) Luther successfully challenges the Church (FC.84) Different interpretations of its meaning Encourages more radical reformers People interpret Bible on their own Collective impact all these on the Reformation?

  9. FC. 85.1 THE FRAGMENTATION OF THE REFORMATION (1519-60) The Bible’symbolic language Printing Press spreads info quickly (FC.74) Luther successfully challenges the Church (FC.84) Different interpretations of its meaning Encourages more radical reformers People interpret Bible on their own Reformation quickly fragments into numerous Protestant faiths First major reformer?

  10. Huldreich Zwingli and the Swiss Reformation. The first break in Protestant unity came from the Swiss reformer, Huldreich Zwingli. Although only a year younger than Luther, Zwingli seemed to come from a different world. While Luther's outlook and background were very medieval, Zwingli received a liberal humanist education and did not have the great sense of guilt and fear of the terrors of hell his German counterpart had. Zwingli's humanist education influenced him to call for a religion based entirely on the Bible. In 1518 he became a common preacher in Zurich, Switzerland and echoed Luther by speaking out against Bernhardin Samson, a local seller of indulgences. He also denounced other church abuses and thus launched the Swiss Reformation.

  11. “Selling blood for gold”. Early in his career, Zwingli served as a chaplain for Swiss mercenaries in the Italian wars and witnessed the disastrous battle of Marignano where 6,000 of his countrymen died. Like many other Swiss, he was concerned about the drain of these wars on the Swiss population and campaigned against “selling blood for gold”.

  12. “Selling blood for gold”. Early in his career, Zwingli served as a chaplain for Swiss mercenaries in the Italian wars and witnessed the disastrous battle of Marignano where 6,000 of his countrymen died. Like many other Swiss, he was concerned about the drain of these wars on the Swiss population and campaigned against “selling blood for gold”. Largely because of the attrition coming from these wars, the Swiss soon were replaced as the premier mercenaries of their age by the German landsknechts. However, Swiss Guard honor regiments would serve French kings until the end of the monarchy in 1792 and still serve popes to the present day in the Vatican (below).

  13. Gold for babies. The Swiss clergy were notorious for being morally lax. When a Swiss bishop charged each of his subordinates four guilders for each illegitimate baby they had fathered, he collected 1522 guilders in just one year. (Where the extra two guilders came from is unclear.) Zwingli himself had an affair with a barber’s daughter until 1516, when he ended the affair.

  14. Earning “street cred”. In 1519, plague struck Zurich, eventually killing one-third of its population. Unlike many clergy and doctors who fled the scene, leaving the sick to fend for themselves, Zwingli stayed and tended the plague’s victims, which made him popular with the townspeople. It also infected him with the plague, which required a long period of recovery that taught him to depend on God’s mercy.

  15. A pretty smart guy. Zwingli not only read, but even memorized St. Paul’s epistles. He also astounded his congregation one Sunday by doing a sight translation of the entire Gospel of Matthew. What made this especially amazing was the fact that Catholic congregations would only hear selected verses from the Bible, not entire books in context.

  16. Zwingli's religion was both similar to and different from Luther's. Like Luther, he stressed a more personal relationship between man and God, claimed faith alone could save one's soul, and denied the validity of many Catholic beliefs and customs such as purgatory, monasteries, and a celibate (unmarried) clergy. However, Zwingli's goal from the first was to break completely from the Catholic Church. His plan for doing this was to establish a theocracy (church run state) in Zurich.

  17. By 1525, he had accomplished this, having banished the Catholic mass and introduced services in the vernacular. He vastly simplified the service to sermon and scripture readings. Despite his love of music, Zwingli banned it from the service and even smashed the church organ. He either destroyed or whitewashed religious images, which he saw as idolatrous, served communion in a wooden bowl rather than a silver chalice, and closed down monasteries or turned them into hospitals and schools. Left: The simplicity of a typical Protestant church

  18. By 1525, he had accomplished this, having banished the Catholic mass and introduced services in the vernacular. He vastly simplified the service to sermon and scripture readings. Despite his love of music, Zwingli banned it from the service and even smashed the church organ. He either destroyed or whitewashed religious images, which he saw as idolatrous, served communion in a wooden bowl rather than a silver chalice, and closed down monasteries or turned them into hospitals and schools. Left: The simplicity of a typical Protestant church Although not persecuted, Catholics had to pay fines for attending mass and eating fish on Fridays (a Catholic practice then to symbolize personal sacrifice by not eating meat) and were excluded from public office. Zwingli also closely supervised the morals of his congregation. All these measures anticipated the later reforms of John Calvin.

  19. Stricter interpretation. Zwingli tended to be more tightly tied to scripture than Luther. One simple way to distinguish between the theologies of the two men is that, in general, Luther allowed what was not strictly forbidden in the Bible, while Zwingli banned whatever was not explicitly allowed. He did keep stained glass windows, most likely because replacing them would be expensive and necessary, given the cold winters in that part of the world.

  20. Fish on Fridays. Until extensive reforms in the 1960s, Catholics were not allowed to eat meat on Fridays, although they could eat fish. The reason for this was that the meat from warm-blooded animals right before the weekend could inflame the passions and make people act naughty. Such danger did not exist with fish, since they are cold-blooded.

  21. By 1528, Zwingli's reforms had spread across northern Switzerland with the South remaining Catholic. Because of fear of being caught between Catholics in southern Switzerland and Germany to the north Zwingli followed a more aggressive foreign policy and attempts to unite with the Lutherans in common cause against the Catholics.

  22. By 1528, Zwingli's reforms had spread across northern Switzerland with the South remaining Catholic. Because of fear of being caught between Catholics in southern Switzerland and Germany to the north Zwingli followed a more aggressive foreign policy and attempts to unite with the Lutherans in common cause against the Catholics. The proposed alliance never occurred because the two camps could not agree on one piece of theology: whether the bread and wine of communion were actually transubstantiated (transformed) into the body and blood of Christ. The Catholic Church had claimed for centuries that transubstantiation did take place, and Luther agreed with them in a modified form. Zwingli said it was only symbolic of Christ's body and blood. A personal meeting between Luther and Zwingli at Marburg (below) in 1529 accomplished nothing except hard feelings, &the proposed alliance between Zwinglians & Lutherans fell through.

  23. Cuckoos and hedge sparrows. There were fifteen major points of difference between Luther and Zwingli. For example, Luther said only God knew the elect (those who were saved) while Zwingli said they were known by their public adherence to faith. Amazingly, they managed to come to agreement or some sort of compromise on all but one point: transubstantiation. Luther said Zwingli’s symbolic interpretation of the Bible would lead him to turn a passage such as “God created the heavens and the earth” into “The cuckoo ate the hedge sparrow.”

  24. Aggressive Zwinglian missionaries in the Catholic districts of Switzerland led to war in 1531, and an army of 8000 Catholics destroyed Zwingli and his force of 3500 men at Kappel. According to one version, Catholics found Zwingli already wounded after the battle and killed him when he refused to recant his beliefs.

  25. Aggressive Zwinglian missionaries in the Catholic districts of Switzerland led to war in 1531, and an army of 8000 Catholics destroyed Zwingli and his force of 3500 men at Kappel. According to one version, Catholics found Zwingli already wounded after the battle and killed him when he refused to recant his beliefs. An uneasy co-existence between Protestants and Catholics followed, and Protestantism survived in Switzerland. Zwinglianism, however, did not survive outside Switzerland, his Swiss Reformed Church being largely replaced by Calvinism. Still, Zwingli was important for establishing Protestantism in Switzerland and serving as an example for the more successful Calvinists who followed.

  26. FC. 85.1 THE FRAGMENTATION OF THE REFORMATION (1519-60) • Zwingli’s early life • Liberal humanist educ. The Bible’symbolic language Printing Press spreads info quickly (FC.74) Luther successfully challenges the Church (FC.84) Different interpretations of its meaning Encourages more radical reformers People interpret Bible on their own Reformation quickly fragments into numerous Protestant faiths Huldreich Zwingli* (1484-1531)

  27. FC. 85.1 THE FRAGMENTATION OF THE REFORMATION (1519-60) • Zwingli’s early life • Liberal humanist educ. •  Not plagued like Luther by • terrifying visions of Hell, etc. The Bible’symbolic language Printing Press spreads info quickly (FC.74) Luther successfully challenges the Church (FC.84) Different interpretations of its meaning Encourages more radical reformers People interpret Bible on their own Reformation quickly fragments into numerous Protestant faiths Huldreich Zwingli (1484-1531)

  28. Zwingli’s early life • Liberal humanist educ. •  Not plagued like Luther by • terrifying visions of Hell, etc. • Chaplain for Swiss merc’s @ • disastrous battle of Marignano in • Italy Huldreich Zwingli (1484-1531)

  29. Largely because of the attrition of the Italian wars, the Swiss soon were replaced as the premier mercenaries of their age by the German landsknechts. However, Swiss guard honor regiments would serve popes to the present day and French kings until the end of the monarchy in1792. • Zwingli’s early life • Liberal humanist educ. •  Not plagued like Luther by • terrifying visions of Hell, etc. • Chaplain for Swiss merc’s @ • disastrous battle of Marignano • Campaigned vs “selling blood for • gold” (Sw. merc’s in for. service)

  30. FC. 85.1 THE FRAGMENTATION OF THE REFORMATION (1519-60) • Zwingli’s early life • Liberal humanist educ. •  Not plagued like Luther by • terrifying visions of Hell, etc. • Chaplain for Swiss merc’s @ • disastrous battle of Marignano • Campaigned vs “selling blood for • gold” (Sw. merc’s in for. service) • Morally liberal priest w/mistress The Bible’symbolic language Printing Press spreads info quickly (FC.74) Luther successfully challenges the Church (FC.84) Different interpretations of its meaning Encourages more radical reformers People interpret Bible on their own Reformation quickly fragments into numerous Protestant faiths Huldreich Zwingli (1484-1531)

  31. FC. 85.1 THE FRAGMENTATION OF THE REFORMATION (1519-60) • Zwingli’s early life • Liberal humanist educ. •  Not plagued like Luther by • terrifying visions of Hell, etc. • Chaplain for Swiss merc’s @ • disastrous battle of Marignano • Campaigned vs “selling blood for • gold” (Sw. merc’s in for. service) • Morally liberal priest w/mistress • 1516- Zwingli ended affair The Bible’symbolic language Printing Press spreads info quickly (FC.74) Luther successfully challenges the Church (FC.84) Different interpretations of its meaning Encourages more radical reformers People interpret Bible on their own Reformation quickly fragments into numerous Protestant faiths Huldreich Zwingli (1484-1531)

  32. FC. 85.1 THE FRAGMENTATION OF THE REFORMATION (1519-60) • Zwingli’s early life • Liberal humanist educ. •  Not plagued like Luther by • terrifying visions of Hell, etc. • Chaplain for Swiss merc’s @ • disastrous battle of Marignano • Campaigned vs “selling blood for • gold” (Sw. merc’s in for. service) • Morally liberal priest w/mistress • 1516- Zwingli ended affair • Sw. bishop collected 4 guilders/ • priest’s illeg. Child  1,522 in 1 yr The Bible’symbolic language Printing Press spreads info quickly (FC.74) Luther successfully challenges the Church (FC.84) Different interpretations of its meaning Encourages more radical reformers People interpret Bible on their own Reformation quickly fragments into numerous Protestant faiths Huldreich Zwingli (1484-1531)

  33. FC. 85.1 THE FRAGMENTATION OF THE REFORMATION (1519-60) • Zwingli’s early life • Liberal humanist educ. •  Not plagued like Luther by • terrifying visions of Hell, etc. • Chaplain for Swiss merc’s @ • disastrous battle of Marignano • Campaigned vs “selling blood for • gold” (Sw. merc’s in for. service) • Morally liberal priest w/mistress • 1516- Zwingli ended affair • Sw. bishop collected 4 guilders/ • priest’s illeg. Child  1,522 in 1 yr • - Met Erasmus & memorized St. • Paul’s epistles The Bible’symbolic language Printing Press spreads info quickly (FC.74) Luther successfully challenges the Church (FC.84) Different interpretations of its meaning Encourages more radical reformers People interpret Bible on their own Reformation quickly fragments into numerous Protestant faiths Huldreich Zwingli (1484-1531)

  34. FC. 85.1 THE FRAGMENTATION OF THE REFORMATION (1519-60) • Zwingli’s early life • Liberal humanist educ. •  Not plagued like Luther by • terrifying visions of Hell, etc. • Chaplain for Swiss merc’s @ • disastrous battle of Marignano • Campaigned vs “selling blood for • gold” (Sw. merc’s in for. service) • Morally liberal priest w/mistress • 1516- Zwingli ended affair • Sw. bishop collected 4 guilders/ • priest’s illeg. Child  1,522 in 1 yr • - Met Erasmus & memorized St. • Paul’s epistles • 1517- Called for relig. based entirely • on Bible The Bible’symbolic language Printing Press spreads info quickly (FC.74) Luther successfully challenges the Church (FC.84) Different interpretations of its meaning Encourages more radical reformers People interpret Bible on their own Reformation quickly fragments into numerous Protestant faiths Huldreich Zwingli (1484-1531)

  35. FC. 85.1 THE FRAGMENTATION OF THE REFORMATION (1519-60) • Zwingli’s early life • Liberal humanist educ. •  Not plagued like Luther by • terrifying visions of Hell, etc. • Chaplain for Swiss merc’s @ • disastrous battle of Marignano • Campaigned vs “selling blood for • gold” (Sw. merc’s in for. service) • Morally liberal priest w/mistress • 1516- Zwingli ended affair • Sw. bishop collected 4 guilders/ • priest’s illeg. Child  1,522 in 1 yr • - Met Erasmus & memorized St. • Paul’s epistles • 1517- Called for relig. based entirely • on Bible • 1518- Spoke vs. Bernhardin • Samson, Tetzel of Switz. The Bible’symbolic language Printing Press spreads info quickly (FC.74) Luther successfully challenges the Church (FC.84) Different interpretations of its meaning Encourages more radical reformers People interpret Bible on their own Reformation quickly fragments into numerous Protestant faiths Huldreich Zwingli (1484-1531)

  36. FC. 85.1 THE FRAGMENTATION OF THE REFORMATION (1519-60) • Zwingli’s early life • Liberal humanist educ. •  Not plagued like Luther by • terrifying visions of Hell, etc. • Chaplain for Swiss merc’s @ • disastrous battle of Marignano • Campaigned vs “selling blood for • gold” (Sw. merc’s in for. service) • Morally liberal priest w/mistress • 1516- Zwingli ended affair • Sw. bishop collected 4 guilders/ • priest’s illeg. Child  1,522 in 1 yr • - Met Erasmus & memorized St. • Paul’s epistles • 1517- Called for relig. based entirely • on Bible • 1518- Spoke vs. Bernhardin • Samson, Tetzel of Switz. • 1519- Plague in Zurich1/3 died The Bible’symbolic language Printing Press spreads info quickly (FC.74) Luther successfully challenges the Church (FC.84) Different interpretations of its meaning Encourages more radical reformers People interpret Bible on their own Reformation quickly fragments into numerous Protestant faiths Huldreich Zwingli (1484-1531)

  37. FC. 85.1 THE FRAGMENTATION OF THE REFORMATION (1519-60) • Zwingli’s early life • Liberal humanist educ. •  Not plagued like Luther by • terrifying visions of Hell, etc. • Chaplain for Swiss merc’s @ • disastrous battle of Marignano • Campaigned vs “selling blood for • gold” (Sw. merc’s in for. service) • Morally liberal priest w/mistress • 1516- Zwingli ended affair • Sw. bishop collected 4 guilders/ • priest’s illeg. Child  1,522 in 1 yr • - Met Erasmus & memorized St. • Paul’s epistles • 1517- Called for relig. based entirely • on Bible • 1518- Spoke vs. Bernhardin • Samson, Tetzel of Switz. • 1519- Plague in Zurich1/3 died • Zwingli tended sickpopular The Bible’symbolic language Printing Press spreads info quickly (FC.74) Luther successfully challenges the Church (FC.84) Different interpretations of its meaning Encourages more radical reformers People interpret Bible on their own Reformation quickly fragments into numerous Protestant faiths Huldreich Zwingli (1484-1531)

  38. FC. 85.1 THE FRAGMENTATION OF THE REFORMATION (1519-60) • Zwingli’s early life • Liberal humanist educ. •  Not plagued like Luther by • terrifying visions of Hell, etc. • Chaplain for Swiss merc’s @ • disastrous battle of Marignano • Campaigned vs “selling blood for • gold” (Sw. merc’s in for. service) • Morally liberal priest w/mistress • 1516- Zwingli ended affair • Sw. bishop collected 4 guilders/ • priest’s illeg. Child  1,522 in 1 yr • - Met Erasmus & memorized St. • Paul’s epistles • 1517- Called for relig. based entirely • on Bible • 1518- Spoke vs. Bernhardin • Samson, Tetzel of Switz. • 1519- Plague in Zurich1/3 died • Zwingli tended sickpopular • - Zw. caught BD->Long recovery •  Learned to depend on God The Bible’symbolic language Printing Press spreads info quickly (FC.74) Luther successfully challenges the Church (FC.84) Different interpretations of its meaning Encourages more radical reformers People interpret Bible on their own Reformation quickly fragments into numerous Protestant faiths Huldreich Zwingli (1484-1531)

  39. FC. 85.1 THE FRAGMENTATION OF THE REFORMATION (1519-60) • Zwingli’s early life • Liberal humanist educ. •  Not plagued like Luther by • terrifying visions of Hell, etc. • Chaplain for Swiss merc’s @ • disastrous battle of Marignano • Campaigned vs “selling blood for • gold” (Sw. merc’s in for. service) • Morally liberal priest w/mistress • 1516- Zwingli ended affair • Sw. bishop collected 4 guilders/ • priest’s illeg. Child  1,522 in 1 yr • - Met Erasmus & memorized St. • Paul’s epistles • 1517- Called for relig. based entirely • on Bible • 1518- Spoke vs. Bernhardin • Samson, Tetzel of Switz. • 1519- Plague in Zurich1/3 died • Zwingli tended sickpopular • - Zw. caught BD->Long recovery •  Learned to depend on God • -Transl. & preached on whole Book • of MatthewAmazed congregation The Bible’symbolic language Printing Press spreads info quickly (FC.74) Luther successfully challenges the Church (FC.84) Different interpretations of its meaning Encourages more radical reformers People interpret Bible on their own Reformation quickly fragments into numerous Protestant faiths Huldreich Zwingli (1484-1531)

  40. FC. 85.1 THE FRAGMENTATION OF THE REFORMATION (1519-60) • Zwingli’s early life • Liberal humanist educ. •  Not plagued like Luther by • terrifying visions of Hell, etc. • Chaplain for Swiss merc’s @ • disastrous battle of Marignano • Campaigned vs “selling blood for • gold” (Sw. merc’s in for. service) • Morally liberal priest w/mistress • 1516- Zwingli ended affair • Sw. bishop collected 4 guilders/ • priest’s illeg. Child  1,522 in 1 yr • - Met Erasmus & memorized St. • Paul’s epistles • 1517- Called for relig. based entirely • on Bible • 1518- Spoke vs. Bernhardin • Samson, Tetzel of Switz. • 1519- Plague in Zurich1/3 died • Zwingli tended sickpopular • - Zw. caught BD->Long recovery •  Learned to depend on God • -Transl. & preached on whole Book • of MatthewAmazed congregation • Bible study Zwingli increasingly • at odds w/Cath. practices The Bible’symbolic language Printing Press spreads info quickly (FC.74) Luther successfully challenges the Church (FC.84) Different interpretations of its meaning Encourages more radical reformers People interpret Bible on their own Reformation quickly fragments into numerous Protestant faiths Huldreich Zwingli (1484-1531)

  41. FC. 85.1 THE FRAGMENTATION OF THE REFORMATION (1519-60) • Zwingli’s early life • Liberal humanist educ. •  Not plagued like Luther by • terrifying visions of Hell, etc. • Chaplain for Swiss merc’s @ • disastrous battle of Marignano • Campaigned vs “selling blood for • gold” (Sw. merc’s in for. service) • Morally liberal priest w/mistress • 1516- Zwingli ended affair • Sw. bishop collected 4 guilders/ • priest’s illeg. Child  1,522 in 1 yr • - Met Erasmus & memorized St. • Paul’s epistles • 1517- Called for relig. based entirely • on Bible • 1518- Spoke vs. Bernhardin • Samson, Tetzel of Switz. • 1519- Plague in Zurich1/3 died • Zwingli tended sickpopular • - Zw. caught BD->Long recovery •  Learned to depend on God • -Transl. & preached on whole Book • of MatthewAmazed congregation • Bible study Zwingli increasingly • at odds w/Cath. practices • 1523- Zurich city council decreed • only preaching what’s in Bible The Bible’symbolic language Printing Press spreads info quickly (FC.74) Luther successfully challenges the Church (FC.84) Different interpretations of its meaning Encourages more radical reformers People interpret Bible on their own Reformation quickly fragments into numerous Protestant faiths Huldreich Zwingli (1484-1531)

  42. FC. 85.1 THE FRAGMENTATION OF THE REFORMATION (1519-60) • Zwingli’s early life • Liberal humanist educ. •  Not plagued like Luther by • terrifying visions of Hell, etc. • Chaplain for Swiss merc’s @ • disastrous battle of Marignano • Campaigned vs “selling blood for • gold” (Sw. merc’s in for. service) • Morally liberal priest w/mistress • 1516- Zwingli ended affair • Sw. bishop collected 4 guilders/ • priest’s illeg. Child  1,522 in 1 yr • - Met Erasmus & memorized St. • Paul’s epistles • 1517- Called for relig. based entirely • on Bible • 1518- Spoke vs. Bernhardin • Samson, Tetzel of Switz. • 1519- Plague in Zurich1/3 died • Zwingli tended sickpopular • - Zw. caught BD->Long recovery •  Learned to depend on God • -Transl. & preached on whole Book • of MatthewAmazed congregation • Bible study Zwingli increasingly • at odds w/Cath. practices • 1523- Zurich city council decreed • only preaching what’s in Bible • - Zw. more bound to text than Luther The Bible’symbolic language Printing Press spreads info quickly (FC.74) Luther successfully challenges the Church (FC.84) Different interpretations of its meaning Encourages more radical reformers People interpret Bible on their own Reformation quickly fragments into numerous Protestant faiths Huldreich Zwingli bases his religion on Bible, but goes further than Luther: Bans art & music from church service Denies transub-stantiation Makes Zurich a strict theocracy

  43. FC. 85.1 THE FRAGMENTATION OF THE REFORMATION (1519-60) • Zwingli’s early life • Liberal humanist educ. •  Not plagued like Luther by • terrifying visions of Hell, etc. • Chaplain for Swiss merc’s @ • disastrous battle of Marignano • Campaigned vs “selling blood for • gold” (Sw. merc’s in for. service) • Morally liberal priest w/mistress • 1516- Zwingli ended affair • Sw. bishop collected 4 guilders/ • priest’s illeg. Child  1,522 in 1 yr • - Met Erasmus & memorized St. • Paul’s epistles • 1517- Called for relig. based entirely • on Bible • 1518- Spoke vs. Bernhardin • Samson, Tetzel of Switz. • 1519- Plague in Zurich1/3 died • Zwingli tended sickpopular • - Zw. caught BD->Long recovery •  Learned to depend on God • -Transl. & preached on whole Book • of MatthewAmazed congregation • Bible study Zwingli increasingly • at odds w/Cath. practices • 1523- Zurich city council decreed • only preaching what’s in Bible • - Zw. more bound to text than Luther • - Luther would allow what Bible • did not specifically prohibit, • - Zwingli would reject whatever • Bible didn’t specifically allow The Bible’symbolic language Printing Press spreads info quickly (FC.74) Luther successfully challenges the Church (FC.84) Different interpretations of its meaning Encourages more radical reformers People interpret Bible on their own Reformation quickly fragments into numerous Protestant faiths Huldreich Zwingli bases his religion on Bible, but goes further than Luther: Bans art & music from church service Denies transub-stantiation Makes Zurich a strict theocracy

  44. FC. 85.1 THE FRAGMENTATION OF THE REFORMATION (1519-60) • 1519- Plague in Zurich1/3 died • Zwingli tended sickpopular • - Zw. caught BD->Long recovery •  Learned to depend on God • -Transl. & preached on whole Book • of MatthewAmazed congregation • Bible study Zwingli increasingly • at odds w/Cath. practices • 1523- Zurich city council decreed • only preaching what’s in Bible • - Zw. more bound to text than Luther • - Luther would allow what Bible • did not specifically prohibit, • - Zwingli would reject whatever • Bible didn’t specifically allow •  Drastically cut Cath. elements • to return to orig. Chr practices • ZWINGLI’S REFORMS • -Like Luther, cut papal authority, • invoking saints, clerical celibacy • & keeping chalice from congreg, The Bible’symbolic language Printing Press spreads info quickly (FC.74) Luther successfully challenges the Church (FC.84) Different interpretations of its meaning Encourages more radical reformers People interpret Bible on their own Reformation quickly fragments into numerous Protestant faiths Huldreich Zwingli bases his religion on Bible, but goes further than Luther: Bans art & music from church service Denies transub-stantiation Makes Zurich a strict theocracy

  45. FC. 85.1 THE FRAGMENTATION OF THE REFORMATION (1519-60) • 1519- Plague in Zurich1/3 died • Zwingli tended sickpopular • - Zw. caught BD->Long recovery •  Learned to depend on God • -Transl. & preached on whole Book • of MatthewAmazed congregation • Bible study Zwingli increasingly • at odds w/Cath. practices • 1523- Zurich city council decreed • only preaching what’s in Bible • - Zw. more bound to text than Luther • - Luther would allow what Bible • did not specifically prohibit, • - Zwingli would reject whatever • Bible didn’t specifically allow •  Drastically cut Cath. elements • to return to orig. Chr practices • ZWINGLI’S REFORMS • -Like Luther, cut papal authority, • invoking saints, clerical celibacy • & keeping chalice from congreg, • - Beyond Luther: • -Ended fast days, The Bible’symbolic language Printing Press spreads info quickly (FC.74) Luther successfully challenges the Church (FC.84) Different interpretations of its meaning Encourages more radical reformers People interpret Bible on their own Reformation quickly fragments into numerous Protestant faiths Huldreich Zwingli bases his religion on Bible, but goes further than Luther: Bans art & music from church service Denies transub-stantiation Makes Zurich a strict theocracy What else did he ban?

  46. FC. 85.1 THE FRAGMENTATION OF THE REFORMATION (1519-60) • 1519- Plague in Zurich1/3 died • Zwingli tended sickpopular • - Zw. caught BD->Long recovery •  Learned to depend on God • -Transl. & preached on whole Book • of MatthewAmazed congregation • Bible study Zwingli increasingly • at odds w/Cath. practices • 1523- Zurich city council decreed • only preaching what’s in Bible • - Zw. more bound to text than Luther • - Luther would allow what Bible • did not specifically prohibit, • - Zwingli would reject whatever • Bible didn’t specifically allow •  Drastically cut Cath. elements • to return to orig. Chr practices • ZWINGLI’S REFORMS • -Like Luther, cut papal authority, • invoking saints, clerical celibacy • & keeping chalice from congreg, • - Beyond Luther: • -Ended fast days, The Bible’symbolic language Printing Press spreads info quickly (FC.74) Luther successfully challenges the Church (FC.84) Different interpretations of its meaning Encourages more radical reformers People interpret Bible on their own Reformation quickly fragments into numerous Protestant faiths Huldreich Zwingli bases his religion on Bible, but goes further than Luther: Bans art & music from church service Denies transub-stantiation Makes Zurich a strict theocracy

  47. The simplicity of a typical Protestant church

  48. FC. 85.1 THE FRAGMENTATION OF THE REFORMATION (1519-60) • 1519- Plague in Zurich1/3 died • Zwingli tended sickpopular • - Zw. caught BD->Long recovery •  Learned to depend on God • -Transl. & preached on whole Book • of MatthewAmazed congregation • Bible study Zwingli increasingly • at odds w/Cath. practices • 1523- Zurich city council decreed • only preaching what’s in Bible • - Zw. more bound to text than Luther • - Luther would allow what Bible • did not specifically prohibit, • - Zwingli would reject whatever • Bible didn’t specifically allow •  Drastically cut Cath. elements • to return to orig. Chr practices • ZWINGLI’S REFORMS • -Like Luther, cut papal authority, • giving chalice only to clergy, • invoking saints, & clerical celibacy • - Beyond Luther: • -Ended fast days,, The Bible’symbolic language Printing Press spreads info quickly (FC.74) Luther successfully challenges the Church (FC.84) Different interpretations of its meaning Encourages more radical reformers People interpret Bible on their own Reformation quickly fragments into numerous Protestant faiths Huldreich Zwingli bases his religion on Bible, but goes further than Luther: Bans art & music from church service Denies transub-stantiation Makes Zurich a strict theocracy Communion served in?

  49. FC. 85.1 THE FRAGMENTATION OF THE REFORMATION (1519-60) • 1519- Plague in Zurich1/3 died • Zwingli tended sickpopular • - Zw. caught BD->Long recovery •  Learned to depend on God • -Transl. & preached on whole Book • of MatthewAmazed congregation • Bible study Zwingli increasingly • at odds w/Cath. practices • 1523- Zurich city council decreed • only preaching what’s in Bible • - Zw. more bound to text than Luther • - Luther would allow what Bible • did not specifically prohibit, • - Zwingli would reject whatever • Bible didn’t specifically allow •  Drastically cut Cath. elements • to return to orig. Chr practices • ZWINGLI’S REFORMS • -Like Luther, cut papal authority, • giving chalice only to clergy, • invoking saints, & clerical celibacy • - Beyond Luther: • -Ended fast days, • -Communion in wooden bowl, • - Left stained glass in cathedral The Bible’symbolic language Printing Press spreads info quickly (FC.74) Luther successfully challenges the Church (FC.84) Different interpretations of its meaning Encourages more radical reformers People interpret Bible on their own Reformation quickly fragments into numerous Protestant faiths Huldreich Zwingli bases his religion on Bible, but goes further than Luther: Bans art & music from church service Denies transub-stantiation Makes Zurich a strict theocracy