Exam Q 1 • The 'need to achieve' is often viewed as necessary for good sports performance both for individuals and for members of a team. • Using practical examples describe the features of a need to achieve performer. • 4 marks 4 marks for: • practical examples to be used throughout – sub max of 2 marks with no examples) • (a)
Exam Q 1 • 1 Innate personality characteristics/natural trait/enduring • 2 Approach behavior/is motivated to succeed – hockey player keen to do well. • 3 Seeks challenges/ excitement/ risks – young person wants to go rock climbing. • 4 Likes competition/is competitive – netball player wants to win the tournament. • 5 High levels of confidence/self efficacy/mastery orientation – swimmer wants to enter the competition. • 6 Is persistent on task/doesn't give up (easily)/determined – tennis player fights against a losing position. • 7 Takes responsibility for actions – footballer accepts penalty is his fault. • 8 Likes feedback/likes evaluation/likes/seeks an audience – cricket player asks for feedback. • 9 The more competitive/the more important the event the more the need to achieve is motivated. – a player in a cup final tries harder. • 10 Not afraid of failure/see failure as route to success – footballer misses a penalty but learns from the mistake.
Exam Q 2 • Explain how frustration may lead to aggression. (4 marks) [4 Marks] • 4 marks for 4 of: • 1. Performer tries to achieve goal • 2. Opposition block/stop/tackle • 3. Leads to frustration and possible aggression • 4. Build up of frustration – more likelihood of aggression • 5. Aggression reduces frustration/catharsis • 6. (Berkowitz’s) aggressive cues – greater likelihood of aggression
Personal Beliefs What is your belief about these sports and / or images?
Personal Beliefs What is your belief about these sports and / or images? What do you think has shaped your thoughts towards these images?
Attitudes • An attitude is a mode of behaviour that is thought to be the typical response of an individual. • Attitudes are learned behaviours associated with personality, enduring but are unstable. • An attitude is often directed towards an attitude object. • This could be a place, a situation or the behaviour of others.
Origin of Attitudes • Attitudes are formed mainly through experiences. • In groups, your task is to design a scenario that shows how an individual could form a negative attitude towards a sport or activity. • Forming positive attitudes whilst participating in sport is likely to motivate individuals to continue with that particular sport or activity, and therefore create a balanced, active, healthy lifestyle for the future.
Socialisation • Socialisation is interaction with others that can change behaviour. • What is the major influence in these clips, and how do they change attitudes or behaviour? • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KKhaT-pXHHc • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=59oDLyziwy4 • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QHlQg5Y2w18 • Culture can also heavily influence attitudes.
Components of Attitude - Triadic Model What you believe to be true. (may not be) Belief formed from past experience, learned. Likely influence, parents or peers Cognitive Component What your feelings or emotional response Your intended behaviour dependent on your attitude Affective Component Behavioural Component
Apply It! In groups, your task is to imagine that you have just started a fitness training session once a week in a local school. You have a broad mix of children who attend, but there are two individuals who have attended but don’t wish to attend again: • Arthur - he is a very slight build, and is the only male in the group • Jasmine - she is overweight and is very body conscious What attitudes do you think these children would have towards fitness sessions (think of cognitive, behavioural and affective)?
Prejudice • Long-standing attitudes can influence behaviour, and can cause an inconsistency in judgement. • Prejudice is a pre-judgement arising from an evaluation based on unfounded beliefs or opinions. • Prejudice could be directed towards the sport being played and also an individual could be the victim of prejudice. • How can prejudice reduce the possibility of an individual participating in sport? Do you think prejudice is only negative? Prejudice can be positive, can you think of an example?
Prejudice Prejudice can be positive, can you think of an example? A person who kicks the ball out if a player goes down. You are being prejudice towards fair play. You are making an evaluation of a situation before receiving adequate information
Attitude example • Read the passage on page 191 and apply the triadic model using as many components as you can. • La Pierre in 1934. Cognitive Component Behaviour does not always reflect the attitude, or what people think. Behavioral Component Affective Component
Cognitive Dissonance Theory Festinger proposed that if two attitude components can be made to oppose each other, or come into conflict, then an individual can experience emotional discomfort. This emotional discomfort is called dissonance. If one attitude component (cognitive, behaviouralor affective) can be changed to bring about cognitive dissonance, then there is an increased possibility of changing the whole attitude.
Changing attitude • What do you think about women’s football? Belief • What do you think about doing exercise? Emotion Behaviour
Persuasive Communication Theory • Who would you get to give you the right advice? About business About staying fit About law
Persuasive Communication Theory Take part in physical activity
Changing attitude. • A teacher wants to promote gymnastics to a group of boys. • Using your understanding of the triadic model, cognitive dissonance and the persuasive communication theory, explain what you would do to increase participation.
Exam Question Jan 2011 • Having a good attitude towards sport is often regarded as important for success and to maintain a balanced, active, healthy lifestyle. • Identify what is meant by an attitude and describe the components of attitudes that young people might have towards sport and health. [4 Marks]
Exam Question Jan 2011 • 1 mark for: • 1 Attitude is a pre-disposition (mixture) or beliefs or feelings or behaviours towards an (attitude) object/something/someone. (eg training or participation in sport). • 3 marks for: (must be description rather than a list) • 2 Cognitive element which is a belief about training/playing well/participation/health. • 3 Affective element which is an emotional aspect such as enjoyment/positive feelings/hostility/negative feelings towards training/playing well/participation/health. • 4 Behavioural element which is behaviour towards training/playing/health/shows commitment/persistence/sticking to the task/trying hard/avoidance behaviours/giving up.
Extension task • Attitudes associated with physical education • If someone has a positive attitude towards physical activity what would they say? • For example, • “I know that it’s good for me”. • “I have fun when I take part”. • “I get a sense of catharsis.”
Expected behaviour • Stereotype