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INFECTION CONTROL AND STANDARD PRECAUTIONS PowerPoint Presentation
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INFECTION CONTROL AND STANDARD PRECAUTIONS

INFECTION CONTROL AND STANDARD PRECAUTIONS

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INFECTION CONTROL AND STANDARD PRECAUTIONS

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  1. Chapter 16 INFECTION CONTROL AND STANDARD PRECAUTIONS

  2. FLORA • Flora are microorganisms that occur or have adapted to living in a specific environment • Resident flora are always present and prevent overgrowth of harmful microorganisms • Transient flora occur in periods of limited duration © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  3. PATHOGENICITY AND VIRULENCE • Bacteria • Viruses • Fungi • Protozoa • Rickettsia © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  4. CHAIN OF INFECTION • Agent - entity that causes disease • Biological agents • Chemical agents • Physical agents • Reservoir - place where agent can survive to colonize and reproduce © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  5. CHAIN OF INFECTION • Portal of exit - route by which infectious agents leave reservoir to be transferred to susceptible host • Portal of entry - contact point where transmission of agent occurs © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  6. CHAIN OF INFECTION • Mode of transportation • Contact transmission - physical transfer of agent • Airborne transmission - contamination suspended in air • Vehicle transmission - agent transferred via inanimate object • Vectorborne transmission - agent transferred through animate means © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  7. BREAKING THE CHAIN OF INFECTION • Between agent and reservoir • Cleansing • Disinfection • Sterilization © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  8. BREAKING THE CHAIN OF INFECTION • Between reservoir and portal of exit • Proper hygiene • Clean dressings • Clean linen • Clean equipment © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  9. BREAKING THE CHAIN OF INFECTION • Between portal of exit and mode of transmission • Block exit of infectious agent by: • Maintaining clean dressings on all wounds and injuries • Covering mouth when sneezing and coughing • Wearing gloves © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  10. BREAKING THE CHAIN OF INFECTION • Between portal of entry and host • Maintain skin integrity • Use sterile techniques • Between host and agent • Proper nutrition • Exercise • Immunize © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  11. NORMAL DEFENSE MECHANISMS • Nonspecific immune defense • Skin and normal flora • Mucous membranes • Sneezing, coughing, and tearing • Elimination and acidic environment • Inflammation © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  12. NORMAL DEFENSE MECHANISMS • Specific immune defense mounts a response specific to the invading antigen • Production of T-cells release lymphokines and B-cells © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  13. STAGES OF THE INFECTIOUS PROCESS • Incubation • Prodromal • Illness • Convalescent © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  14. NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS • A nosocomial infection is acquired in a health care facility and was not present at the time of admission © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  15. STANDARD PRECAUTIONS • Handwashing • Gloves • Mask, eye protection, and face shield • Gown • Client care equipment • Linens © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  16. STANDARD PRECAUTIONS • Occupational health and bloodborne pathogens • Prevent injuries from sharp instruments such as needles and scalpels • Use mouthpieces, resuscitation bags, and other ventilation devices to resuscitate © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  17. ISOLATION • Isolation precautions based on route of transmission • Airborne • Contact • Droplet • Reverse isolation - barrier protection to protect clients that are highly susceptible to infection © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.