16-4 What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Hydropower • Concept 16-4 We can use water flowing over dams, tidal flows, and ocean waves to generate electricity, but environmental concerns and limited availability of suitable sites may limit the use of these energy resources.
We Can Produce Electricity from Falling and Flowing Water • Hydropower • Uses kinetic energy of moving water • Indirect form of solar energy • World’s leading renewable energy source used to produce electricity
Tradeoffs: Dams and Reservoirs Fig. 13-13, p. 328
Powerlines Reservoir Dam Powerhouse Intake Turbine Fig. 13-13b, p. 328
Trade-Offs: Large-Scale Hydropower, Advantages and Disadvantages Fig. 16-22, p. 415
Tides and Waves Can Be Used to Produce Electricity • Produce electricity from flowing water • Ocean tides and waves • So far, power systems are limited • Disadvantages • Few suitable sites • High costs • Equipment damaged by storms and corrosion
16-5 What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Wind Power? • Concept 16-5 When we include the environmental costs of using energy resources in the market prices of energy, wind power is the least expensive and least polluting way to produce electricity.
Using Wind to Produce Electricity Is an Important Step toward Sustainability (1) • Wind: indirect form of solar energy • Captured by turbines • Converted into electrical energy • Second fastest-growing source of energy • What is the global potential for wind energy? • Wind farms: on land and offshore
World Electricity from Wind Energy Figure 12, Supplement 9
Solutions: Wind Turbine and Wind Farms on Land and Offshore Fig. 16-23, p. 417
Wind Turbine Fig. 16-24, p. 417
Using Wind to Produce Electricity Is an Important Step toward Sustainability (2) • Countries with the highest total installed wind power capacity • Germany • United States • Spain • India • Denmark • Installation is increasing in several other countries
Using Wind to Produce Electricity Is an Important Step toward Sustainability (3) • Drawbacks • Windy areas may be sparsely populated – need to develop grid system to transfer electricity • Winds die down; need back-up energy • Storage of wind energy • Kills migratory birds • “Not in my backyard”
Trade-Offs: Wind Power Fig. 16-25, p. 418
Case Study: The Astounding Potential of Wind Power in the United States • “Saudi Arabia of wind power” • North Dakota • South Dakota • Kansas • Texas • How much electricity is possible with wind farms in those states? • Could create up to 500,000 jobs
United States Wind Power Potential Figure 24, Supplement 8