Outline • Product positioning (Rossiter and Percy) • X-YZ model of positioning location • I-D-U model of benefit emphasis • Positioning statement
What is positioning? Category Need (X) User (Y) Brand Benefit(s) (Z)
X-YZ model of positioning location • X-decision: • central positioning • differentiated positioning • YZ-decision: • user as hero positioning • product as hero positioning
I-D-U model of benefit emphasis • purchase motives: • informational (functional) vs. transformational (psycho-social) motives • general rule • selection of benefits to emphasize: • importance • delivery • uniqueness
Functional motives Psycho-social motives Types of purchase motives Problem solving (problem removal or avoidance) Quality and performance Price and value Familiarity Convenience Normal depletion Social approval Self-expression Variety and change Emotional stimulation Intellectual stimulation Sensory gratification
Positioning statement • To [the target audience, Y] • ________ is the (central or differentiated) brand of [category need, X] • that offers [brand benefit(s), Z]. The advertising for this brand • should emphasize [benefit(s), U, uniquely delivered], • must mention [benefit(s), I, important “entry tickets”], • and will omit or trade off [benefit(s), D-, inferior-delivery benefits].
In-class exercise:Writing a positioning statement Study the two ads for Advil and Motrin and write a positioning statement for each brand, using the positioning template presented in this file. You may want to study the ads for different brands of pain relievers contained in the file pain.ppt to get an impression of the positioning strategies used in this product category.