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Financial Statement Analysis

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## Financial Statement Analysis

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**Financial Statement Analysis**Chapter 17**Learning Objectives**• Describe basic financial statement analytical methods. • Use financial statement analysis to assess the solvency of a business. • Use financial statement analysis to assess the profitability of a business. • Describe the contents of corporate annual reports.**Learning Objective**1 Describe basic financial statement analytical methods.**Basic Analytical Methods**• Users analyze a company’s financial statements using a variety of analytical methods. Three such methods are as follows: • Horizontal analysis • Vertical analysis • Common-sized statements**Horizontal Analysis**• The percentage analysis of increases and decreases in related items in comparative financial statements is called horizontal analysis.**Horizontal Analysis:**Difference$17,000 Base year (2013)$533,000 = 3.2% Horizontal Analysis**Horizontal Analysis:**Difference$25,800 Base year (2013)$64,700 = 39.9% Horizontal Analysis**Horizontal Analysis**Horizontal Analysis: Difference$296,500 Base year (2013)$1,234,000 = 24.0%**Horizontal Analysis**Horizontal Analysis: Difference$37,500 Base year (2013)$ 100,000 = 37.5%**Vertical Analysis**• A percentage analysis used to show the relationship of each component to the total within a single financial statement is called vertical analysis.**Vertical Analysis**• In a vertical analysis of the balance sheet, each asset item is stated as a percent of the total assets. • Each liability and stockholders’ equity item is stated as a percent of the total liabilities and stockholders’ equity.**Vertical Analysis**Vertical Analysis: Current Assets$550,000 Total Assets$ 1,139,500 = 48.3%**Vertical Analysis**• In a vertical analysis of the incomestatement, each item is stated as a percent of net sales.**Vertical Analysis**Vertical Analysis: Selling expenses $191,000 Net sales $1,498,000 = 12.8%**Common-Sized Statements**• In a common-sized statement, all items are expressed as percentages with no dollar amounts shown. • Common-sized statements are useful for comparing the current period with prior periods, individual businesses with one another, or one business with industry averages.**Learning Objective**2 Use financial statement analysis to assess the solvency of a business.**Solvency Analysis**• All users of financial statements are interested in the ability of a company to do the following: • Meet its financial obligations (debts), calledsolvency. • Earn income, called profitability.**Solvency Analysis**• Solvency analysis focuses on the ability of a business to pay its current and noncurrent liabilities. • Solvency and profitability are interrelated. A company that cannot pay its debts will have difficulty obtaining credit, which can decrease its profitability.**Current Position Analysis**• A company’s ability to pay its current liabilities is called current position analysis. It is of special interest to short-term creditors.**Working Capital**• The excess of current assets over current liabilities is called working capital. Working capital is often used to evaluate a company’s ability to pay current liabilities. • Working capital is computed as follows: Working Capital = Current Assets – Current Liabilities**Current Assets**Current Liabilities Current Ratio = Current Ratio • The current ratio, sometimes called the working capital ratio,also measures a company’s ability to pay its current liabilities. • The current ratio is computed as follows:**$550,000**$210,000 $533,000 $243,000 Current Ratio • The current ratio for Lincoln Company is computed below. 2014 2013 Current assets $550,000 $533,000 Current liabilities $210,000 $243,000 Current ratio 2.6 2.2**Quick Assets**Current Liabilities Quick Ratio = Quick Ratio • A ratio that measures the “instant” debt-paying ability of a company is called the quick ratio, or acid-test ratio. It is computed as follows: Quick assets are cash and other assets that can be easily converted to cash.**$280,500**$210,000 $244,700 $243,000 Quick Assets • The quick ratio for Lincoln Company is computed below. 2014 2013 Quick assets: Cash $ 90,500 $ 64,700 Temporary Investments 75,000 60,000 Accounts receivable (net) 115,000 120,000 Total quick assets $280,500 $244,700 Current liabilities $210,000 $243,000 Quick ratio 1.3 1.0**Net Sales**Average Accounts Receivable Accounts Receivable Turnover = Accounts Receivable Turnover • The relationship between sales and accounts receivable may be stated as accounts receivable turnover. Collecting accounts receivable as quickly as possible improves a company’s solvency. • The accounts receivable turnover is computed as follows:**$1,498,000**$117,500 $1,200,000 $130,000 Accounts Receivable Turnover • The accounts receivable turnover for Lincoln Company is computed below. 2014 2013 Net sales $1,498,000 $1,200,000 Accounts receivable (net): Beginning of year $ 120,000 $ 140,000 End of year 115,000 120,000 Total $ 235,000 $ 260,000 Average (Total ÷ 2) $ 117,500 $ 130,000 Accounts receivable turnover 12.7 9.2**Average Accounts Receivable**Average Daily Sales Number of Days’ Sales in Receivables = Net Sales 365 Number of Days’ Sales in Receivables • The number of days’ sales in receivables is an estimate of the length of time (in days) the accounts receivable have been outstanding. It is computed as follows:**2014 2013**• Average accounts receivable • (Total accounts receivable ÷ 2) $ 117,500 $ 130,000 • Net sales $1,498,000 $1,200,000 • Average daily sales • (Net sales ÷ 365) $ 4,104 $ 3,288 $117,500 $4,104 $130,000 $3,288 Number of Days’ Sales in Receivables • The number of days’ sales in receivables for Lincoln Company is computed below. Number of days’ sales in receivables 28.6 39.5**Cost of Goods Sold**Average Inventory Inventory Turnover = Inventory Turnover • The relationship between the volume of goods (merchandise) sold and inventory may be stated as the inventory turnover. The purpose of this ratio is to assess the efficiency of a firm in managing its inventory. • The inventory turnover is computed as follows:**$1,043,000**$273,500 $820,000 $297,000 Inventory Turnover • Lincoln’s inventory balance at the beginning of 2013 is $311,000. 2014 2013 Cost of goods sold $1,043,000 $820,000 Inventories: Beginning of year $ 283,000 $311,000 End of year 264,000 283,000 Total $ 547,000 $594,000 Average (Total ÷ 2) $ 273,500 $297,000 Inventory turnover 3.8 2.8**Cost of Goods Sold**365 Average Inventory Average Daily Cost of Goods Sold Number of Days’ Sales in Inventory = Number of Days’ Sales in Inventory • The number of days’ sales in inventory is a rough measure of the length of time it takes to purchase, sell, and replace the inventory. • The number of days’ sales in inventory is computed as follows:**Number of Days’ Sales in Inventory**• The number of days’ sales in inventory for Lincoln Company is computed below. 2014 2013 • Average Inventory $273,500 $297,000 $547,000 ÷ 2 $594,000 ÷ 2 (continued)**$273,500**$2,858 $297,000 $2,247 Number of Days’ Sales in Inventory • The number of days’ sales in inventory for Lincoln Company is computed below. 2014 2013 • Average Inventory $273,500 $297,000 • Average daily cost of goods sold $2,858 $2,247 $1,043,000 ÷ 365 $820,000 ÷ 365 Number of days’ sales in inventory 95.7 132.2**Fixed Assets (net)**Long-Term Liabilities Ratio of Fixed Assets to Long-Term Liabilities = Ratio of Fixed Assets to Long-Term Liabilities • The ratio of fixed assets to long-termliabilities is a solvency measure that indicates the margin of safety of the note-holders or bondholders. It also indicates the ability of the business to borrow additional funds on a long-term basis. • The ratio is computed as follows:**2014 2013**Fixed assets (net) $444,500 $470,000 Long-term liabilities $100,000 $200,000 $444,500 $100,000 $470,000 $200,000 Ratio of Fixed Assets to Long-Term Liabilities • To illustrate, the ratio of fixed assets to long-term liabilities for Lincoln Company is computed below. Ratio of fixed assets to long-term liabilities 4.4 2.4**Total Liabilities**Total Stockholders’ Equity Ratio of Liabilities to Stockholders’ Equity = Ratio of Liabilities to Stockholders’ Equity • The relationship between the total claims of the creditors and the owners—theratio ofliabilities to stockholders’equity—is a solvency measure that indicates the margin of safety for creditors. • The ratio is computed as follows:**2014 2013**Total liabilities $310,000 $443,000 Total stockholders’ equity $829,500 $787,500 $310,000 $829,500 $443,000 $787,500 Ratio of Liabilities to Stockholders’ Equity • The ratio of liabilities to stockholders’ equity for Lincoln Company is computed below. Ratio of liabilities to stockholders’ equity 0.4 0.6**Number of Times Interest Charges Earned**• Corporations in some industries normally have high ratios of debt to stockholders’ equity. For such corporations, the relative risk of the debt-holders is normally measured as the number of times interestcharges are earned (during the year), sometimes called the fixed chargecoverage ratio.**Income Before Income Tax + Interest Expense**Interest Expense Number of Times Interest Charges Are Earned = Number of Times Interest Charges Earned • It is computed as follows:**$168,500**$6,000 $146,600 $12,000 Number of Times Interest Charges Earned • The number of times interest charges are earned for Lincoln Company is computed below. 2014 2013 Income before income tax $162,500 $134,600 Add interest expense 6,000 12,000 Amount available to meet interest charges $168,500 $146,600 Number of times interest charges earned 28.1 12.2**Number of Times Preferred Dividends Are Earned**Net Income Preferred Dividends = Number of Times Interest Charges Earned • The number of times interest charges are earned can be adapted for use with dividends on preferred stock. • The number of times preferred dividends are earned is computed as follows:**Learning Objective**3 Use financial statement analysis to assess the profitability of a business.**Profitability Analysis**• Profitability analysis focuses primarily on the relationship between operating results and the resources available to a business.