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Carnatic Music

Carnatic Music

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Carnatic Music

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  1. Carnatic Music Continued

  2. 3 Functioning Layers • Melodic Layer • Drone • Rhythm • Associated with particular instruments

  3. Melodic Layer • Two Parts: • Principal melodic soloist that dominates the ensemble • Usually voice. Can be violin, bamboo flute, veena.. • Melodic Accompanist who aids the soloist • Plays with vocalist • Echoes and supports improvisations • Plays solo improvisations

  4. Veena http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gLA58vT-FI0&feature=results_main&playnext=1&list=PL91F824B8ECE3D33C

  5. Drone • Holds one or two notes throughout a piece • Specialized drone instruments • Tambura: four-stringed plucked instrument tuned to tonal center and fifth • Purposeful Buzzing timbre • Sruti (shruti) Box: Played with bellows • Today electronic synthesizer

  6. Tambura (Tambur) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KxPwJ93aWcI

  7. Sruti Box http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lBwAV8urkvwShruti Box

  8. Rhythm/Percussion • Bedrock of the ensemble • Mridangam: principal percussion instrument • Ghatam: large clay pot • Kanjira: tambourine • Morsang: jaw’s harp

  9. Mridangam

  10. Drummer’s Art • Improvisatory style • Based on hundreds of memorized rhythm patterns and drum strokes • Art centers on drum strokes • Sollukattu – spoken syllables • Drummer is crucial!

  11. Concert Song Forms • Start: Varnam • Continues: String of Kritis • Main Item: Often a Kriti • End: More relaxed atmosphere • Devotional music bhajan • Slokam: chanted religious verses • Songs from bharatanatyam

  12. Kriti • Made up of numerous sections • i.e. • Alapana • Tanam • Kriti “Sarasiruha” • Kalpanasvaras 1 & 2 • Taniavartanam • Kriti (return and close)

  13. Alapana • First section of a performance • Free-flowing exposition and exploration of the raga of the kriti • Voice/instrument and drone background • Nonmetrical(no regular beat/tala) • Has general plan • Slow, low  high, fast  slow, low

  14. More on Alapana • Raga is derived from the kriti • Natai Raga – associated with Siva in the form of Nataraja “The Lord of Dance” • Oscillation on second note of scale in descent • Musical personality: • The Dance of Shiva shakes the universe with its power and fury

  15. Tanam • Highly-rhythmic exposition of the raga • Improvised patterns and drone on veena • No tala cycles but strong sense of beat • Like Alapana trace from low to high in graduated steps and back down again.

  16. Kriti • The major song form of the concert • May be short or very long • Very flexible structure but compositions remain recognizable • Sung or not, the words influence the performance

  17. KalpanaSvaras • Improvised section • At the end of or after a kriti • Singer sings names of notes! • Returns to phrase from kriti as home base (idam) • First short simple improvisations • Then longer and more complex

  18. TaniAvartanam • Improvised and precomposed rhythmic solo • By mridangam • Conclusion of the main item in a concert • Can be 10/15 minutes or more • Displays his skills and imagination • Ends on korvai – big pattern repeated three times • Leads back into kriti phrase

  19. Bharatanatyam • South Indian Classical Dance • Accompanied by Carnatic Music • Dates back to 1000 B.C. • “Fire Dance” • Celebrating spiritual universe

  20. Dance • Very similar to classical music is music for South India’s dance traditions • Particularly bharatanatyam • Nattavangam – chanted rhythmic syllables (with dance) • Lyrics often repeated many times

  21. Aspects of Dance • Karanas: 108 transitional movements • Hastas: Expressive hand gestures • Adavus: Basic rhythmic dance unit (108-150)- Most use around 60 (syllables) • Bhedas – head, neck, eye movements • http://www.ehow.com/video_2382623_basic-bharatanatyam-dance-hand-gestures.html • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=prQOdTmF8u0 • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=96AGc1qRWDI&feature=relmfu (group) • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=waEXlvat5GA Bollywood

  22. Psychedelic Rock • Late 1960s – West • Counterculture • Attempts to replicate and enhance mind-altering experiences • Draws on ragas and drones of Indian music • The Beatles, The Byrds, The Yardbirds, Grateful Dead

  23. Fusion • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dtzrbbJ6N2gYehudinMenhuin and Ravi Shankar • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f1g2o7nVy-g&feature=related George Harrison and Ravi Shankar • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ljnv3KGtcyI&feature=related Within You Without You

  24. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AI9RJbljBLwRohan Krishnamurthy video • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gLA58vT-FI0&feature=results_main&playnext=1&list=PL91F824B8ECE3D33CVeena Master • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lBwAV8urkvwShruti Box • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KxPwJ93aWcI With Tampura