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Option 4: Outdoor Recreation. - What is the Value of outdoor recreation? - What are the technical skills and understanding needed for safe participation in outdoor recreation? - what impact does group dynamics have on the outdoor experience?. What is the Value of outdoor recreation?.
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Option 4: Outdoor Recreation - What is the Value of outdoor recreation?- What are the technical skills and understanding needed for safe participation in outdoor recreation? - what impact does group dynamics have on the outdoor experience?
What is the Value of outdoor recreation? Summary of Content: • Reasons for participation in outdoor recreation: - stress management/relaxation - enjoyment, challenge and excitement - social interaction - appreciation on the environment - health and fitness
Reasons for Participation in Outdoor Recreation Complete the activity on page 96-97 of your exercise booklets.
Reasons for Participation in Outdoor Recreation Stress Management and Relaxation Feelings of anxiety and stress are increasingly common in society today. Some of the reasons for these feelings include: • Urbanisation: communities being over-crowded and polluted e.g. Large cities. • Unemployment: resulting in poverty and family pressures to survive contributing to higher stress levels. • Increased Responsibility: longer hours at work, people commuting greater distances to work lead to less time at home with the family. • Social Changes: the change in traditional family roles, family breakdown increase stress levels. • Disadvantaged Groups: experience discrimination, harassment, drug abuse, poverty and unemployment. Outdoor recreation can be an avenue to alleviate stress and anxiety caused by everyday life. It is seen as an escape from a regular routine and gives a person the opportunity to ‘re-create’ themselves. Outdoor recreation can promote feelings of relaxation or excitement that distracts people from the stress in their lives.
Reasons for Participation in Outdoor Recreation Enjoyment, challenge and excitement Activity (complete in your book) • Reflect on any experiences you may have had in outdoor recreation that filled you with a sense of excitement and challenge. Why did it make you feel this way? • In groups, research and note the feats of one or more of the following outdoor adventurers. Consider the role of challenge and excitement in their motivation to complete their expeditions. • Paul Caffyn – kayaked around the coast of Australia, mainly solo. • Kay Cottee – first woman to sail solo around the globe. • Sir Edmund Hillary – first successful mountaineering expedition to climb Mt Everest. • Brigitte Muir – first Australian woman to climb Mt Everest • Gerrard Gosens – blind adventurer and paralympian, climb Mt Everest and many other feats.
Reasons for Participation in Outdoor Recreation Social Interaction Individuals choose activities according to their needs, personality and lifestyle. Some people enjoy the opportunities for social interaction that outdoor recreation can bring. It can join friends with similar interest together and allow people to make new friends in the process of participating. In contrast, other people prefer to escape crowds and seek out isolated wilderness areas. For these people, solace and isolation can be a valuable spiritual experience.
Reasons for Participation in Outdoor Recreation Appreciation of the Environment The Australian environment offers some of the world’s most spectacular and varied scenery, including alpine, tropical, desert and coastal landscapes. Individuals and communities do not have to venture far from home to enjoy and appreciate some magnificent natural environmental settings. Participation in outdoor recreation can be an avenue that allows individuals to immerse themselves in the natural world.
Reasons for Participation in Outdoor Recreation Activity: Complete in your exercise book • List recreational activities that can be enjoyed in your local region. • Which activities appeal to you? Why? • What outcomes could result from participation in these activities? E.g. An increased respect for rainforests..... • In which activities could a person in a wheelchair or an elderly person participate?
Reasons for Participation in Outdoor Recreation Health and Fitness Many outdoor recreation pursuits involve physical activity and can contribute to the development and maintenance of fitness. The components of fitness developed vary depending on the activity chosen. E.g. Cross country skiing is an excellent aerobic activity. In contrast rock climbing and canoeing develop muscular endurance. Fitness requirements for many outdoor recreational activities are quiet specific. Whilst regular involvement in sport and fitness activities is beneficial for general conditioning, it may not be adequate to prepare for specialised activities such as a hard bushwalk carrying a heavy backpack over several days.
Reasons for Participation in Outdoor Recreation Activity: Draw the table below in your exercise books, discuss and fill in the relevant information.
Reasons for Participation in Outdoor Recreation Activity: Page 100 of your Work Booklets Research the Duke of Edinburgh Award Program. Complete the table that outlines the requirements of each award and answer the questions that follow. http://www.dukeofed.com.au/
Reasons for Participation in Outdoor Recreation Questions: • What is the aim of the program? • Identify some of the unique aspects of the award. • What is the criterion for gaining an award? • Outline what the award requires students to do. • What are the requirements for entry into the program? • List reasons why students may be interested in participating. • What costs are involved? • How long to awards take to complete?
Reasons for Participation in Outdoor Recreation Research three types of outdoor recreational activities. Complete the table on page 102 of your Work Booklet using information from your research:
What are the technical skills and understanding needed for safe participation in outdoor recreation? Summary of Content • Planning Skills - environment planning - emergency management planning - food and water considerations - resources for safe participation - legal and administrative requirements • Campsite Selection - geographic, environment & climatic considerations - establishing the campsite - tree fall evacuation • Conservation Skills - ‘leave no trace’ camping - minimal impact practices - ethical issues
What are the technical skills and understanding needed for safe participation in outdoor recreation? • Navigational Skills - map reading - grid bearing - magnetic bearing - true north - measuring distance - natural navigation • Emergency Management Skills - wilderness first aid - what to do when you are lost - bushfire procedures, lightning, flooded rivers • Skills needed for outdoor activities - canoeing/kayaking skills - abseiling skills
Planning Skills Environmental Planning Planning for environmental hazards depends on the activity being undertaken and the venue chosen. It is important that the venue is suitable for the ability level of the participants and that some members of the group have prior experience in the area.
Planning Skills Case Study: Caving Tragedy Expeditions in the outdoors are often delayed by poor weather. In some situations, groups are advised to stay where they are, rather than attempted to keep going in very poor conditions. Of course, it is important to be dry, have shelter and sufficient provisions. The following tragic story illustrates how poor weather conditions, combined with poor decision making can be fatal. A party of students and teachers became stranded in a cave after heavy rain raised water levels in the cave. The group was delayed and began to worry about their families and the authorities, who would be anxious and waiting for their arrival. Two people decided to get out of the cave to communicate the situation while the others remained in the high part of the cave. Tragically, the two who left the main party drowned as they tried to get out. The rest of the party survived and were rescued. COMPLETE THE QUESTIONS ON THE FOLLOWING SLIDE
Planning Skills Questions: • What are the risks associated with caving described in this case study? • What information could have been left with family and authorities before the group set out? • How could the tragedy have been prevented?
Planning Skills Emergency Management Planning Many outdoor recreational activities involve elements of risk. While the risks involved often make the activity more appealing and challenging, it is important that participants ensure that risks taken are controlled or calculated and individual needs and abilities within the group are considered. With this in mind, the level of danger associated with an activity can be significantly minimised through effective emergency management planning. This can take many forms and may include such things as: - departure and return times - suitability of the activity for the skill level of participants - route to be taken and escape routes - legal consent forms - first aid considerations - procedures for emergency situations
Planning Skills Food and Water Considerations The length and type of the expedition, possible weather conditions and the season will determine the consideration given to food and water. Most humans can live for up to three weeks without food, but will survive only 1-3 days without water. E.g. If the temperature is 20 degrees Celsius, a person would need 1.2L of water if resting in the shade, whereas if the temperature was 30 degrees Celsius the need for water increases to 2.5L. At least one day’s supply of emergency food should be carried for most expeditions, more should be taken for extended trips.
Planning Skills Legal and Administrative Requirements Expeditions may involve travel on private land or in national parks. Participants need to consider the following: • Booking of camp sites • Permission for access to private land • Entry permits to national parks • Attention to detail; leaving camp sites clean, leaving gates as you find them, respecting privacy and avoiding disturbing domestic plants and animals
Planning Skills Resources for Safe Participation The choices made about the clothing and equipment taken on an expedition can save lives. Equipment needs vary depending on the expedition undertaken. In general, outdoor recreational activities demand lightweight, durable equipment and clothing that can protect you from environmental conditions. Complete the activities on pages 105-109 of your work booklet.
Camp Site Selection Geographical, Environmental & Climatic Considerations The following should be considered : • Water - is the adequate water nearby? - is the site at least four metres above the river bank in case of heavy rain? • Site - ensure the ground is flat and free from sticks, stones, animal nests and burrows and is not in a drainage area. - what is the surface of the ground? Grass, sand, clay? • Fires - are there fire bans in operation? If not, is there wood? Is an existing fire place available? - fires are not permitted in many areas that are sensitive; e.g. Alpine regions or in heavily used areas.
Camp Site Selection • Toilet Facilities - are there toilet facilities? If not are there suitable private places for people to use? - can you successfully set up a latrine? - position the toilet area well away from the water supply and down wind to prevent contamination and unpleasant odours. • Camp Site Waste Disposal - Carry out everything that is carried in. This includes food scraps. • Privacy and Shelter - Does the site provide shelter from the prevailing winds? Do you get sun or shade, sun should be aimed for in the morning to get the group up and going whilst shade is more ideal in the afternoon to provide some relief from the heat of the day. • Hazards - Swampy areas that attract mosquitoes, cliffs, dead trees, falling rocks and mine shafts. Complete the activity on page 110 of your Work Booklet.
Camp Site Selection Use the information below to complete the activity on page 110 of your work booklet Ensure a level site: Level, firm ground is important. Don’t select the lowest ground because water will pool there when it rains. Conduct a surface check: To check for ants’ nests, dried mud (which may turn boggy with rain, and rocks. Look above: Don’t camp under trees with large boughs, especially gums. They tend to snap in strong winds and lightning strikes.
Camp Site Selection Avoid insects: Examine the ground for ants’ nests before pitching your tent. Keep your tent zipped to stop insects entering. Don’t leave shoes, socks, hats and gloves lying around outside as they can provide a warm spot for insects & spiders to hide. Wear gloves when collecting firewood. Re-seal food containers immediately after use. Dispose of your rubbish to prevent ants and flies descending. Burn a citronella candle to discourage mosquitoes. Anticipate water flow : Don’t camp in dry creeks or river beds. A storm may cause flooding. Dig a small trench on the high side of your tent to divert water. Avoid any area that will become flooded when it rains. Camp on the high side of walking tracks as tracks tend to be good collectors of run-off water.
Camp Site Selection Predict windy situations : Face your tent opening away from the prevailing wind. Find a sheltered spot out of the wind behind shrubs and trees or in a dune. Respect your fellow campers: Don’t set up too close to your neighbour. Avoid spreading out too much and crowding other campers. Noise curfews are 9 pm for national parks and 10 pm for caravan parks and camping grounds. Pick up your pet’s droppings. Tie up your pet at night to prevent it roaming around other sites or harming livestock and wildlife. Consider the wind direction when lighting a fire to avoid smoke blowing into your neighbour’s area. Dispose of rubbish correctly or take it with you Consider wildlife: Pay attention to warning signs about wildlife such as crocodiles or poisonous marine life. Biting insects breed around water — set up your camp at least 100 metres away. Pack up food and scraps at night — they attract possums and insects.
Camp Site Selection Establishing the Campsite How to put up a tent: Clearing the site Laying a tarp Laying the tent Support poles for the tent Threading the support poles Raising the tent Pegging the tent down Putting the waterproof fly on your tent How not to put up a tent: Poor Tent Attempt
Camp Site Selection Campfire Preparation Preparing the Site • Build your fire on a bed of sand or dirt away from logs or stumps and vegetation. Clear away any material that could catch fire. • Build your campfire at a safe distance from the tent and try to keep people at least a metre away from the flames. Line this outside area with a ring of stones and large rocks. • Look for an area that is most shielded from strong gusts. There are 3 basic types of materials and wood needed to begin a fire: kindling, sticks and large pieces of wood: o Kindling is the base foundation of any fire. Materials for kindling included twigs, tiny sticks, slivers of shaved wood, dried leaves or paper, birch bark, dried grass, and dried pine needles. oSticks are used to hold your fire structure together. It’s important that sticks are dry. oLarge pieces of wood are added to the fire last. Large chunks of wood should always be placed inside the fire ring or pit.
Camp Site Selection How to Manage Your Fire • Put your fire out each night by covering it with sand or dirt or dousing it with water. • Don’t leave a campfire unattended at anytime How to Put Your Fire Out • To properly cool a fire, water should be splashed on all the embers, including places that are not glowing red. The water should be poured until the hissing noises stop. • Then the ashes should be stirred with a stick to make sure that the water has penetrated all the layers. A fire is fully extinguished if the ashes are cool to the touch. • If water is scarce, sand may be used. Sand deprives the fire of oxygen. Once the fire has been covered thoroughly with sand, all water that can be spared should be poured on it, and the sand stirred into the ash.
Camp Site Selection Other Considerations • Be careful what you burn. Plastics can give off noxious fumes and aerosols and sealed containers can explode. • Pick a spot downwind so the breeze will blow the smoke away from your tent.
Camp Site Selection Disposal of Waste • Wherever possible, whatever is carried in should be carried out. Toilet waste should be buried to a depth that will not be eroded or provide odours. Toilets should be in a designated area. In extreme cases, organic material such as vegetable or fruit scraps can be buried. • Garbage should be retained in some kind of sealed container such as a tied off plastic bag until it can be deposited in a garbage bin. Bush toilet • Dig a narrow, deep hole away from water supplies. After going to the toilet, cover waste with sand to avoid odours. • After disposal the waste should be mixed with the soil to promote appropriate bacterial action, the hole should be filled in and the original surface reconstructed so that there is no evidence of the disposal.
Conservation Skills Turn to page 115 of your work booklet and read through the information on: • ‘Leave no trace’ camping • Minimal impact practices • Ethical issues Then complete the question on pages 115-116 of your work booklets.
Navigation Skills Complete the activity on page 117 using the information below: Map reading • Maps provide important information to allow you to navigate from one point to another. The main type of map used in outdoor recreational pursuits are topographic maps. They provide information on natural landscapes, man-made landscapes, height above sea level, distances and grid bearings. Grid bearing • Grid bearings are used to locate features on maps. Most topographic maps are divided into grids by horizontal and vertical lines drawn on the map. Magnetic bearing • A compass is a useful tool when navigating. The compass needle will always point to magnetic north, which is in the direction of the north pole. Magnetic north changes, although only minimally, every year. Magnetic bearings entail the compass needle as a measure of magnetic north.
Navigation Skills True north • True north is the direction of the north pole. Measuring distance • When using a map, the scale on the map will assist in calculating the distance to be covered. When the distance to be covered is not in a straight line, the route will have to be broken into segments to calculate the distance. Most individuals could cover approximately 4-5kms per hour on level, cleared ground. If the vegetation cover is dense or the ground undulating, the distance covered may be significantly less. Natural navigation • If a map and compass are not available, navigation is still possible by using natural means – the sun and the stars. Now read through the information on page 118 of your work booklet and familiarise yourself with a compass. Your teacher will supply you with a compass to practice with.
Emergency Management Skills Read through the information on pages 119-120. Then complete the questions on page 120-121 using the information provided below: Management for hyperthermia: • DRABCD, put them in a cool place, cool body parts, especially the neck, armpit and groin, apply cold packs, give fluids if conscious (water is the best fluid to drink). Management for hypothermia: • DRABCD, protect from the elements, remove wet clothing, dress in dry clothing, supply body warmth and/or blankets, use a heat blanket if available. Management for a funnel web spider bite: • DRABCD, signs may be extreme pain, sweating, nausea, vomiting and difficulty in breathing. Apply a firm bandage over the bite site, immobilise and transport to hospital as soon as possible. Management for a lost group: • Use a whistle, torch, small contained fire, mirror, mobile phones, flares, radio, wave your arms around, display bright clothing, make a signal from available resources; e.g. tree branches.
Emergency Management Skills Management in the event of a bushfire: • Move to a cleared area, seek shelter in a building/ vehicle if possible, if forced to remain outdoors, seek shelter behind natural barriers; e.g. rock outcrops, wet clothing and cover yourself with a blanket or non-synthetic sheet if available, seek natural watercourses, stay upwind of the bushfire. Management for spilt boiling water: • DRABCD, run cold, fresh water over the area for 10 minutes, remove jewellery and clothing from the burnt area, cover the leg with a sterile, non-stick dressing, give fluids but not alcohol. Management of a box jellyfish sting: • DRABCD, symptoms may include intense pain, whip-like tentacle marks on the skin, breathing and circulation may be affected. Flood the area with vinegar for 30 seconds and apply a pressure immobilisation bandage, immobilise the leg and ice to provide pain relief.
Emergency Management Skills Management of a leech: • Place salt on the leech and pull off. Management for a sprained ankle: • Follow the RICER procedure – rest, ice, compression and elevate the leg. Management of a tick: • If not dealt with quickly, signs may develop including headache, blurred vision, weakness of limbs. Put irritant fluid (kerosene, mineral turpentine, etc), on tick and pull off with tweezers. Management of a snake bite: • DRABCD, exactly the same treatment as spider bite. Management of a broken leg: • DRABCD, immobilise using bandages and splints, ensure circulation is not impaired, do not move unless essential, reassure and observe for shock.
Emergency Management Skills Use the following information to complete the three scenarios on pages 122-123 of your work booklets. When constructing a snow cave, the following points should be considered: • Avoid avalanche-prone zones • Roof and walls of the snow cave should be at least 50cm thick • A sloping tunnel entrance makes it easier to remove any snow fall and helps trap warm air inside • Try to choose a site where the wind blows across the tunnel entrance • Make a ventilation hole. Keep snow shovel and/or ski poles inside the cave • Maintain a permanent watch at all times
Emergency Management Skills Your group of four is lost in the Blue Mountains in May. Sunset is approaching. Describe how to construct an emergency lean-to using natural materials: • Try to find a horizontal branch approximately 1 metre above the ground • Against the horizontal branch, at an angle of 45º, lean small logs, foliage, branches, etc. • The thicker the coverage, the more waterproof the lean-to will be • Build the lean-to in a sheltered spot facing away from the wind If the weather is fine and the sky clear, a lean-to should still be built as the body will lose a large amount of heat through radiation.
Emergency Management Skills How to source drinking water if you cannot locate any natural waterways in the area: • Distillation method – impure water, sea water, polluted water etc, can be boiled and the pure steam collected – possibly by hanging a towel. Or shirt over the steam and wringing out the moisture. • The dew on foliage can be collected before sunrise by soaking it up with clothing and sucking out the moisture. • Collect rainfall using cans, plastic, tent, bark etc. • Transpiration – place a rock in the bottom of the plastic bag and place the bag around the leaves of a tree and secure. Water transpiring off the leaves will collect over time. • Solar stills – dig a hole in the ground and fill it with urine, vegetation or anything containing water. Place a can in the middle of the pit. Seal the pit with plastic by securing the perimeter with rocks and soil. Place a rock on top of the plastic, making it sag directly above the can. The condensation from the organic matter collects on the underside of the plastic, runs down to the lowest point (caused by the rock on the plastic) and drips off into the can.
What impact does group dynamics have on the outdoor experience? Summary of Content • Leadership Styles - democratic - laissez-faire - autocratic - strategic non-intervention • Understanding Group Dynamics - stages of group dynamic (form, storm, norm, transform) - conflict resolution - team building - cooperation • Facilitation - communication skills, decision-making, flexibility • Understanding strength and weaknesses - participant readiness, self-efficacy, balancing challenge and safety - pushing the comfort zone
Leadership Styles Click on the link to view the video clip on Coaching Copy the following information into page 125 of your work booklets Democratic This leadership style allows members of the group to contribute to the decision-making process. The strengths of this leadership style are that group members have an input into how things are done, individuals feel significant and a wide range of alternatives are identified. The weaknesses of this leadership style are dissension may arise due to different opinions and may not be appropriate if an emergency situation arises. Laissez-faire This leadership style has a laid back, casual approach. They are often disorganised. The strengths of this leadership style are that other potential leaders within the group may be identified. The weaknesses of this leadership style are potentially dangerous situations may arise due to lack of leadership.
Leadership Styles Autocratic This leadership style allows for no input from the group. The leader is in charge and they make decisions without consulting the group. The strengths of this leadership style are that responsibility for all decisions rests with the leader. The weaknesses of this leadership style are that frustration may occur among group members, morale of the group may suffer and conflict may arise among group members. Strategic non-intervention This leadership style allows the group leader to step back and observe the group. They intervene only when they have to. The strengths of this leadership style are that it allows group members to learn from their decisions and fosters group decision-making.
Understanding Group Dynamics Stages of group dynamics Groups involved in outdoor recreational activities tend to progress through four distinct stages: 1. Forming – group members meet each other and define goal setting. Group members may be nervous and uncertain. The leader plays an important role in providing direction and guidance. 2. Storming – conflict may occur during this stage because of differences of opinion or personality clashes. The leader needs to build confidence and teamwork. 3. Norming – the group tends to start working towards a common goal rather than individual interests. 4. Transforming – individuals understand their role within the group and value the contribution of other group members. Set goals can be achieved as a group.
Understanding Group Dynamics Conflict resolution Because of the differences in group dynamics, conflict is likely to arise in outdoor recreational activities. This is where the group leader may plan a vital role. To manage conflict, the group leader needs effective communication skills to negate the conflict. The effective handling of conflict can be the difference between an enjoyable and unpleasant outdoor experience. Team building Many outdoor recreational experiences can improve confidence and self-esteem. When individuals work together to achieve a common goal, the quality of the relationships within the group is enhanced.
Understanding Group Dynamics Cooperation Cooperation amongst individual group members is essential for a successful outdoor recreational experience. Through cooperation, each individual is seen as a valued member where support and advice is offered and accepted.
Facilitation Skills Read through the information on page 130 of your work booklets and then as a class brainstorm the following:
Understanding Strengths and Weaknesses Read through the information on pages 130 and 131 of your work booklets and then complete Questions 1 & 2 on page 131 of your work booklets. Please view the clips on ‘Pushing the Comfort Zone’ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y0fi8oxs38w