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Standardisation in RFID

Standardisation in RFID

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Standardisation in RFID

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  1. Standardisation in RFID Alfio Grasso Deputy Director, Auto-ID Lab, Adelaide General Manager, RFID Automation

  2. Overview • RFID Background • EPCglobal • Standards Development Process • Workgroups • Technical Standards • Hardware Action Group • Software Action Group • Standard’s Documents • ISO Standards • 18000-1 to -7 • Others • Regulatory Standards • FCC, ETSI, Australian 4W RFID licence • Auto-ID Lab, Adelaide RFID World 2005 Workshop - Standardisation in RFID

  3. RFID Background

  4. Why now for RFID? • RFID invented in WWII • Steady development over last 50+ years • Recent improvements in tag and reader technology • Better performance • Easier deployment and maintenance • Better use of existing infrastructure and technologies • Improvements in tag and reader manufacturing • Cheaper tags and readers • Industry standardisation • EPCglobal and ISO RFID World 2005 Workshop - Standardisation in RFID

  5. RFID • Radio Frequency Identification • Automatic Data Capture • Uses RF to communicate • Basic Elements • Tags • Readers/Antennas • Host CPU RFID World 2005 Workshop - Standardisation in RFID

  6. Tag reading The black spot Reader Tx typically 1W, 6dB gain Antenna But propagation loss, resulting Rx at Tag typically µW On tag, RF energy used for DC power and modulation More loss back to Reader Rx Therefore a very weak reply is obtained RFID World 2005 Workshop - Standardisation in RFID

  7. RFID Tags • Tags • Attached to objects or items • Contains electronics (chip), and antenna • Most are passive (no power source) • Active tags have a battery RFID World 2005 Workshop - Standardisation in RFID

  8. Matrics (Symbol) Tags RFID World 2005 Workshop - Standardisation in RFID

  9. Alien Technology Tags RFID World 2005 Workshop - Standardisation in RFID

  10. Intermec Tags RFID World 2005 Workshop - Standardisation in RFID

  11. RFID Readers • Readers • Contains electronics, Tx, Rx and control • Connected to antenna(s) • mostly external • Energise tags (passive tags) • Commands tags (wake up active tags, enables management of the tag population) • Receive tag replies RFID World 2005 Workshop - Standardisation in RFID

  12. RFID Readers RFID World 2005 Workshop - Standardisation in RFID

  13. RFID Antenna(s) RFID World 2005 Workshop - Standardisation in RFID

  14. Host CPU • Application • Do something with the tag information • Potential to generate massive amounts of data • Once installed it costs virtually NOTHING to read a tag! • Real time data => real time decisions • OHIO (Zero Human Involvement Operations)* * Term defined by John Greaves, CHEP International RFID World 2005 Workshop - Standardisation in RFID

  15. RFID in Australia – closed loop • Vehicle Identification • Passenger and commercial vehicles • Rail • Passenger, Sugar, Minerals, Steel • Waste Management • Domestic and Industrial • Access Control • Time and Attendance, Vehicle • Manufacturing • Library RFID World 2005 Workshop - Standardisation in RFID

  16. Electronic Toll Collection RFID World 2005 Workshop - Standardisation in RFID

  17. Extended Read Range RFID World 2005 Workshop - Standardisation in RFID

  18. Vehicle ID, Sugar Industry Photos courtesy of Mirrabooka Systems RFID World 2005 Workshop - Standardisation in RFID

  19. Steel Production RFID World 2005 Workshop - Standardisation in RFID

  20. Hot-Axle Detection and RFID Photo courtesy of Sugar Research Institute RFID World 2005 Workshop - Standardisation in RFID

  21. Location ID RFID World 2005 Workshop - Standardisation in RFID

  22. Location ID RFID World 2005 Workshop - Standardisation in RFID

  23. Industrial Waste Management RFID World 2005 Workshop - Standardisation in RFID

  24. Domestic Waste Management RFID World 2005 Workshop - Standardisation in RFID

  25. Manufacturing Photo taken at Hendersons Automotive Technologies Pty Ltd RFID World 2005 Workshop - Standardisation in RFID

  26. Library Photos courtesy of the National Library Board Singapore RFID World 2005 Workshop - Standardisation in RFID

  27. Warehouse Management Photo taken at Carlton & United Beverages RFID World 2005 Workshop - Standardisation in RFID

  28. Warehouse Management Photo taken at Carlton & United Beverages RFID World 2005 Workshop - Standardisation in RFID

  29. Warehouse Management RFID World 2005 Workshop - Standardisation in RFID

  30. Paper Roll Identification RFID World 2005 Workshop - Standardisation in RFID

  31. Vehicle Manufacture RFID World 2005 Workshop - Standardisation in RFID

  32. EPCglobal Standards Development Process

  33. EPCglobal structure RFID World 2005 Workshop - Standardisation in RFID

  34. Membership May 2005 RFID World 2005 Workshop - Standardisation in RFID

  35. Working Groups • Business Steering Committee (BSC) • Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) • Healthcare and Life Sciences (HLS) • Transport and Logistics (TLS) • Technical Steering Committee (TSC) • Hardware Action Group (HAG) • Software Action Group (SAG) RFID World 2005 Workshop - Standardisation in RFID

  36. Standards Development Process RFID World 2005 Workshop - Standardisation in RFID

  37. EPCglobal Workgroups

  38. FMCG – Working Groups • Data Exchange • European Adoption Programme (EAP) • Pilot and Implementation (P&I) • Reusable Transport Items (RTI) • Strategic Planning • Tag and Inlay Standards • Asian Adoption Program (AAP) RFID World 2005 Workshop - Standardisation in RFID

  39. HLS – Working Groups • Strategy • Policy • Process • Information • Technology • Research RFID World 2005 Workshop - Standardisation in RFID

  40. HAG – Working Groups • Class 1 Generation 2 (Work completed) • Gen 2 Testing & Certification • Joints Requirements Group for Item Level Tagging • Others planned RFID World 2005 Workshop - Standardisation in RFID

  41. SAG Working Groups • Reader Protocol • Reader Management • Filtering and Collection • ONS • Security • Tag Data Translation • EPCIS • EPCIS Phase 2 • Tag Data Standards RFID World 2005 Workshop - Standardisation in RFID

  42. Future Working Groups ? • Automotive • Aerospace • Electronics • Biologics RFID World 2005 Workshop - Standardisation in RFID

  43. EPCglobal Technical Standards Hardware Action Group Software Action Group

  44. EPCglobal network: roles and interfaces RFID World 2005 Workshop - Standardisation in RFID

  45. Hardware Action Group C1G2 – Completed Testing and Certification Requirements Item Level Tagging

  46. HAG - Mission • Define the interfaces between hardware components (primarily RFID tags and readers) in the EPCglobal Network RFID World 2005 Workshop - Standardisation in RFID

  47. C1G2

  48. C1G2 Features • Tag must be able to communicate from 860 MHz to 960 MHz • Tags must understand 3 different modulation schemes • Double Sideband Amplitude Shift Keying DSB-ASK • Single Sideband Amplitude Shift Keying SSB-ASK • Phase Reversal Amplitude Shift Keying PR-ASK • Coding is by Pulse Interval Encoding (PIE) • T=>R data rates 40, 80, 160, 320 and 640 kbits • Selection • Access & Kill Passwords • EPC up to 256 bits • Dense reader channelised signalling RFID World 2005 Workshop - Standardisation in RFID

  49. Interrogator/tag operations and tag state RFID World 2005 Workshop - Standardisation in RFID

  50. Inventory • Reader Talks First • Sets up communication parameters, defines a round • Round Size (Q value), slots are numbered from 0 to 2Q-1 • Tags select a slot within a round to offer a reply • Tag States • Ready • Arbitrate • Reply • Acknowledge • Open • Secured • Killed RFID World 2005 Workshop - Standardisation in RFID