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2.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the circulatory system

2.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the circulatory system

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2.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the circulatory system

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  1. 2.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the circulatory system

  2. 2.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the circulatory system Essential questions: • What are the functions of blood? • What are some disorders of the blood? • How are blood disorders treated? • How do you relate the body’s use of nutrients to the blood? • What are the functions of the circulatory system? • What are some disorders of the circulatory system? • How are disorders of the circulatory system treated? • How do you relate the body’s use of nutrients to the circulatory system? 2.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the circulatory system

  3. What are the functions of blood? Transportation • What does the blood transport? • Carries nutrients from the digestive tract to the cells • Oxygen from the lungs to the cells • Waste products from the cells to the various organs of excretion • Hormones from secreting cells to other parts of the body 2.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the circulatory system

  4. Function of blood • Aids in the distribution of heat formed in the more active tissues to all other parts of the body • Helps to regulate the acid-base balance • Protect against infection • Why is this an important function? • Blood is a vital fluid to our life and health 2.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the circulatory system

  5. What are the functions of blood? Regulation • How does the blood regulate heat? • Circulating excess heat to the body surfaces and lungs • How does the blood regulate acid/base balance? • pH through buffers and amino acids pH of blood is 7.4 • Regulates H2O content of cells through its dissolved Na ion, thus playing a role in osmosis 2.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the circulatory system

  6. What are the functions of blood? Protection • What function of the blood serve to protect the body? • Circulates antibodies and defensive cells to combat infection and disease • Produces clots to prevent excessive loss of blood • What is the relevance to health? (TRP) • Transport, Regulatory, Protection 2.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the circulatory system

  7. Plasma Erythrocytes Leukocytes Thrombocytes Functions of the blood components 2.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the circulatory system

  8. Plasma • What is the role of plasma in circulation? • Plasma makes up about half of the content of blood. • Plasma contains proteins that help blood to clot • transport substances through the blood • Blood plasma contains glucose and other dissolved nutrients Plasma Cellular elements 2.01 Remember the structures of the circulatory system

  9. Plasma • Discuss its relevance to health. 2.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the circulatory system

  10. What are the functions of erythrocytes? Transport O2 hemo= blood globin= protein What is the function of hemoglobin? Vital to the function of the RBC Helps it to transport O2 Erythrocytes 2.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the circulatory system

  11. hemolysis What is it? Rupture or bursting of the RBC When does it occur? As a result of blood transfusion reaction Other disease processes What is the lifetime of an erythrocyte? About 120 days Erythrocytes Starts here 2.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the circulatory system

  12. Erythrocytes • What happens to old erythrocytes? • Broken down by spleen and liver • Hgb is broken down and iron part is used for new RBCs 2.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the circulatory system

  13. Rh factor What is hemolytic anemia? How is it treated? Symptomatic treatment can be given by blood transfusion In severe immune-related hemolytic anemia, steroid therapy is sometimes necessary. Sometimes splenectomy can be helpful where extravascularhemolysis is predominant (i.e. most of the red blood cells are being removed by the spleen). A form of anemia due to hemolysis 2.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the circulatory system

  14. What is the function of leukocytes? Body’s natural defense against injury and disease Compare leukocytes to erythrocytes. Larger Granular (with grain appearance Agranular (no grain appearance) Leukocytes 2.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the circulatory system

  15. Leukocytes • Agranulocytes • Lymphocytes • Monocytes 2.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the circulatory system

  16. Granulocytes Neutrophils Eosinophils Basophils Leukocytes 2.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the circulatory system

  17. Inflammation What is inflammation? Is when tissues are subjected to chemical or physical trauma (cut or heat). 2.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the circulatory system

  18. Inflammation 2.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the circulatory system

  19. What is the composition of thrombocytes? Not cells but fragments of the megakaryocytes cytoplasm What is their function? Initiation of the blood-clotting process Thrombocytes 2.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the circulatory system

  20. Thrombocytes 2.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the circulatory system

  21. Blood types What are the types of blood? Where do they come from? 4 major groups or types of blood: A B AB O Inherited: it is determined by the presence or absence of the blood protein called antigen on the surface of the RBC 2.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the circulatory system

  22. Blood types • Compare blood types. (antigen/antibodies) • A (Has A antigen on RBC)B (has B antigen on RBC)AB (has both antigen on RBC)O (Has neither of the antigen) 2.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the circulatory system

  23. Compare blood types • antigen/antibodies • Antigen: protein called agglutinogen (ag-loo-tin-uh-juh n) on the surface of the RBC • Antibody: protein called agglutinin (uh-gloot-n-in) present in the plasma 2.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the circulatory system

  24. Blood types Who can receive type O blood? 2.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the circulatory system

  25. Blood Type • WHO CAN RECEIVE O BLOOD? 2.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the circulatory system

  26. Rh factor WHAT IS ERYTHROBLASTOSIS FETALIS? Hemolytic disease of the newborn of a Rh- mother that is pregnant with an Rh+ fetus 2.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the circulatory system

  27. Rh factor • What are its symptoms? • 1st born child will be okay • Subsequent pregnancies will be affected because the mother’s accumulated anti-Rh antibodies will clump the baby’s RBCs. • How can it be treated? • With RHO Gam, a special preparation of immune globulin 2.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the circulatory system

  28. Blood Disorders • Anemia: • Deficiency in the number and/or percentage of RBCs and the amount of hgb in the blood Review the symptoms of anemia. Discuss why these symptoms occur. 2.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the circulatory system

  29. Blood disorders What is the difference between an embolism and a thrombus? Embolis: where an embolus is carried by the bloodstream until it reaches an artery to small to pass Thromus: formation of a blood clot in the blood vessel 2.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the circulatory system

  30. Blood disorders Explain the difference between a hematoma and a contusion. Hematoma: localized clotted mass of blood found in an organ, tissue, or space an injury, in which the subsurface tissue is injured but the skin is not broken; bruise. 2.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the circulatory system

  31. Blood disorders What is hemophilia? How do you get it? Hereditary disease in which the blood clots slowly or abnormally Injection of the hormone Desmopression to stimulate a release of more of the clotting factor 2.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the circulatory system

  32. Blood disorders • Leukemia What is leukemia? Review the symptoms of leukemia. Discuss why these symptoms occur. How is leukemia treated? 2.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the circulatory system

  33. Blood disorders • Multiple myeloma What is multiple myeloma? What are the symptoms? How is it treated? 2.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the circulatory system

  34. Blood disorders • Polycythemia What is polycythemia? What are the symptoms? How is it treated? Plasma Cellular elements 2.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the circulatory system

  35. Blood disorders • Septicemia What causes septicemia and how it is treated? 2.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the circulatory system

  36. Blood disorders • Sickle cell anemia What is sickle cell anemia? What are the symptoms? How is it treated? 2.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the circulatory system

  37. What are the functions of the heart? 2.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the circulatory system

  38. Functions of the heart Did you know? At rest, 2 ounces of blood is circulated with each heart beat. 2.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the circulatory system

  39. Functions of the heartIt’s a PUMP What do pumps do? How does this relate to heart function? 2.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the circulatory system

  40. Hear the beat! What makes the lubb dupp sound? 2.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the circulatory system

  41. Blood Pressure FYI • Blood pressure is the surge of blood when heart pumps creates pressure against the walls of the arteries • SYSTOLIC PRESSURE • Measured during the contraction phase • DIASTOLIC PRESSURE • Measured when the ventricles are relaxed What is the normal range of blood pressure for an adult? 2.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the circulatory system

  42. Functions of the heartIt’s a PUMP What makes the pump work? It’s electric! Explain the electrical activity of the heart. 2.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the circulatory system

  43. It’s electric! Discuss the function of the heart’s conduction system. 2.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the circulatory system

  44. Electrocardiogram • EKG or ECG • SYSTOLE = contraction phase • DIASTOLE = relaxation phase Baseline of an EKG is a flat line: P = Atrial contraction QRS = Ventricular contraction T = Ventricular relaxation 2.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the circulatory system

  45. Functions of the heartIt’s a PUMP What makes the pump work? It’s electric! 2.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the circulatory system

  46. Functions of the heartTransportation What does the heart transport? What is involved in the transportation process? How is this a circulatory system function? 2.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the circulatory system

  47. The transportation process Discuss systemic circulation 2.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the circulatory system

  48. Right side Superior vena cava Inferior vena cava Right atrium Tricuspid valve Right Ventricle Pulmonary valve Pulmonary artery Lungs CO2 and O2 exchange Left Side Pulmonary vein Left atrium Bicuspid valve Left ventricle Aortic valve Aorta Body The transportation process (Schematic of systemic circulation) 2.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the circulatory system

  49. Discuss cardiopulmonary circulation Compare Systemic Circulation To Cardiopulmonary Circulation The transportation process 2.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the circulatory system

  50. Vessels of the circulatory system • ARTERIES • What are the functions of arteries? • What are the characteristics of arteries? • Which direction do arteries flow? 2.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the circulatory system