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POST CONFLICT RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA

POST CONFLICT RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA

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POST CONFLICT RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA

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Presentation Transcript

  1. POST CONFLICT RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA Overview of major gaps, challenges and efforts to address them

  2. The significance of the Post Conflict Reconstruction Challenge in Africa • PCRD, although a global issue, is of particular relevance to Africa as it: • Directly and indirectly affects more than 1/3rd of Africa’s population; • Affects more countries than in any other continent; • Compounds and complicates existing; inequalities, injustices and underdevelopment; • Is a hindrance to sustainable peace and socio-economic progress; • Many countries relapse into conflict due to weak PCRD;

  3. Strategic challenges in PCRD & Peace Building in Africa • Three strategic challenges identified, end 2004 beginning 2005: • Absence of a comprehensive, strategic and authoritative policy framework; • Disproportionate focus on some aspects of PCRD and neglect of a wide range of crucial issues; • Weak African institutional & human resource capacity for strategic planning, coordination, implementation & monitoring;

  4. PCRD Sub-Cluster’s efforts to help address these challenges • Sub-Cluster resolved to align its work plan to help AU address 3 major challenges and decided to: • Actively support AU’s effort to develop, disseminate and implement a comprehensive and strategic PCRD policy; • Compile comprehensive preliminary assessment reports on status of recovery and reconstruction in 12 post conflict countries; • Support AU’s effort to strengthen/create institutional & coordination mechanisms, build strategic capacity & mobilize support for its activities

  5. Strategic Policy Gap Addressed • During its 7th Ordinary Session in Sirte, Libya, the Executive Council decided that such a policy should be developed; • In September 2005 members of PSC & other AU members held brainstorming retreat in Durban, South Africa – endorsed initial draft • AU PSC endorsed recommendations of Durban brainstorming retreat; • Extensive consultations b/n AU Member States and partners on draft; • Policy Adopted in Banjul, the Gambia in July 2006

  6. The AU PCRD Policy: • Confirmed AU’s political resolve to comprehensively address PCRD; • Defined PCRD and determined its scope including triggers and its end-state; • Set-out principles that will guide PCRD; • Identified 6 indicative elements; • Laid out plan for key mechanisms & processes; • Identified broad roles & responsibilities of major actors; • Provided key benchmarks and standards;

  7. Implementing the PCRD Policy • Strategic implementation plan developed following policy’s adoption. Plan focuses on: • Policy’s dissemination & enlisting of support of all actors and partners; • Establishment of AU-level mechanisms for strategic planning, oversight, coordination & monitoring; • Development of operational guidelines to facilitate country-level implementation; • Establishment of database of African PCRD experts and AU Volunteers programme; • Setting up of AU PCRD fund

  8. Assessment of country-level PCRD activities, needs and gaps • Sub-Cluster decided to compile assessment reports in 12 countries to provide comprehensive but succinct information on status of recovery & reconstruction, identify needs & gaps & offer preliminary recommendations; • Reports on Angola, Burundi, CAR, Cote d’Ivoire, Chad, DRC, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Uganda ready. Rwanda & Somalia by end 2007. • Africa-wide synthesis report to be prepared by mid-2008.

  9. Brief overview of major needs & gaps identified by country reports • Security • Insecurity, intimidation, exploitation, exclusion of some segments of society continue even after peace agreement; • Impunity and lawlessness leaves former victims and vulnerable groups unprotected; • Poor implementation of DDRR with less attention to its “RR” elements; • Weak to no security sector reform resulting in little attention to Human Security; • Continued proliferation of small arms & light weapons; • Limited mine-action leaving civilians at its mercy;

  10. Major needs & gaps - continued • Physical, legal and administrative insecurity hampering the return of refugees, IDPs; • Lack of food, access to water, sanitation, health, education services discouraging return & reintegration; • Inability to rebuild livelihoods frustrating reintegration and rehabilitation; • Secondary and low-level conflict continue to cause displacement;

  11. Major needs & gaps - continued • Political Governance & Transition • Weak state institutions and lack of capacity limit ability to provide administrative and public services; • Low morale, low productivity, red-tape and corruption in the civil service; • Electoral bodies lacking capacity & independence to discharge responsibility; • Limited voter education hampers effective exercise of rights; • Legitimacy of election results questioned due to perceived manipulation, intimidation of voters & candidates;

  12. Major needs & gaps - continued • Human Rights, Justice & Reconciliation • Redress for victims of abuses not assured as impunity prevails; • Abuses continue to be perpetrated on women, children, other vulnerable groups even after end of conflict; • Newly constituted security bodies have little training, capacity to protect human rights – soldiers & combatants converted to civilian police with little or no training; • Shortage of human resources, low training & remuneration limits justice sector’s ability to ensure justice;

  13. Major needs & gaps - continued • Limited or weak effort on national reconciliation leaving root causes unaddressed; • Traditional and grass-root reconciliation mechanisms destroyed or lost legitimacy due to polarization during conflict; • Humanitarian, Socio-Economic Recovery • Inability to ensure food security due to insecurity; low productivity, absence of inputs, land mines etc.; • Destroyed or dilapidated infrastructure resulting in little or no basic services – water, clinics, hospitals, schools, courts, roads, offices;

  14. Major needs & gaps - continued • Socio-economic recovery • Inability of state to collect revenue & effectively manage public finances hampering investment in basic services & infrastructure; • State lack of capacity to plan and implement macro-economic policies; • Low national and foreign investment; • High unemployment and low productivity; • War economies and illegal exploitation of natural resources depriving national economy; • Weakened private sector unable to effectively contribute to economic recovery

  15. Major needs & gaps - continued • Women and gender: women and girls, who face disproportionate suffering during conflict continue to face serious challenges in the post-conflict period including: • Insecurity from armed groups and former perpetrators of SGBV; • Inability to reclaim property lost during conflict; • Lack of access to rebuild livelihoods such as skills development, employment and credit facilities; • Heavy burden to care for children the elderly; • Inability to participate in political processes and achieve political power

  16. Recommendations • Expedite establishment of mechanisms and processes at AU, RECs level as foreseen in PCRD Policy; • Adapt the PCRD Policy to situations at REC and national level; • Engage development actors & international financial institutions (ADB, World Bank etc) in PCRD effort; • Develop comprehensive programme for capacity building at AU level to augment national REC-level efforts; • Create effective linkages & coordination between UN PB Commission and AU PCRD efforts; • Consider establishing PCRD or “Peace” Fund to address PCRD needs of civilians & finance activities critical for sustaining the peace.