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Meningitis

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Meningitis

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  1. Meningitis by Hisinta Whorton March 23, 2010

  2. History & Epidemiology • Epidemic meningitis is a relatively recent phenomenon • The first recorded major outbreak occurred in Geneva in 1805 • Several other epidemics in Europe and the United States were described shortly afterward, and the first report of an epidemic in Africa appeared in 1840

  3. What is Meningitis? • Meningitis is an inflammation of the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord • People sometimes refer to it as spinal meningitis. Meningitis is usually caused by a viral or bacterial infection. Knowing whether meningitis is caused by a virus or bacterium is important because the severity of illness and the treatment differ depending on the cause • Viral meningitis is generally less severe and clears up without specific treatment. But bacterial meningitis can be quite severe and may result in brain damage, hearing loss, or learning disabilities • Fungal meningitis can be caused due to exposure to environments likely to contain fungal elements

  4. Types of Meningitis • Aseptic (Fungi, Mycobacteria,Virus,Cancer) • Cryptococcal (fungus:Cryptococcus neoformans) • Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes) • Haemophilus influenza (Haemophilus influenzae) • Carcinomatous (meningitis due to cancer) • Meningococcal (Neisseria meningitidis) • Pneumococcal (Streptococcus pneumoniae ) • Staphylococcal (Staphylococcus aureus) • Syphilitic aseptic (Treponema pallidum) • Tuberculous (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)

  5. Streptococcuspneumoniae Neisseria meningitidis

  6. Signs & Symptoms • High fever • Headache, and stiff neck. • Nausea • Vomiting • Discomfort looking into bright lights • Confusion • Sleepiness • Appear to be slow • Inactive • Irritable • Feeding poorly • Seizures

  7. Diagnosis • The diagnosis is usually made by growing bacteria from a sample of spinal fluid • The spinal fluid is obtained by performing a spinal tap, in which a needle is inserted into an area in the lower back where fluid in the spinal canal can be collected • Identification of the type of bacteria responsible is important for selection of correct antibiotics

  8. Treatment & Prevention • Acute bacterial meningitis is a true medical emergency, and requires immediate treatment in a hospital • Viral meningitis is milder and occurs more often than bacterial meningitis • Haemophilus vaccine (HiB vaccine) in children will help prevent one type of meningitis • The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is now a routine childhood immunization • Household members and others in close contact with people who have meningococcal meningitis should receive preventive antibiotics to avoid becoming infected themselves

  9. Treatment & Prevention cont’d • Wash your hands thoroughly and often • Clean contaminated surfaces (e.g. doorknobs, TV remote control) • Cover your cough • Avoid kissing or sharing a drinking glass, eating utensil, lipstick, or other such items with sick people or with others when you are sick • Avoid bites from mosquitoes and other insects

  10. Sources • http://www.cdc.gov/meningitis/about/faq.html • https://health.google.com/health/ref/Meningitis#Treatment • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meningitis