Bloodborne Pathogens Jill Cranmore Director, Human Resources Danville Area Community College 2000 E. Main St. Danville, IL 61834 217-443-8756 email@example.com
Bloodborne Pathogens Occupational exposures to bloodborne and other pathogens and consequent infection can occur not only as the result of accidents, but also during the performance of routine work activities. Therefore, it makes good sense to plan your work with regard to the basic principles of biosafety.
Bloodborne Pathogens Part I: The Infectious Disease Process
Bloodborne Pathogens Microorganisms include the following classifications: Bacteria Viruses Fungi Algae Yeasts Protozoa These microorganisms are too small to be seen by the unaided human eye. They are found in the soil, in the water, and on plants and animals. In fact, billions are found in humans on the skin and in both the nasal and intestinal tracts.
Bloodborne Pathogens Although most microorganisms live in harmony with the human body, some—called pathogens—can infect the body and cause disease. Infectious diseases range from mild illnesses, such as a cold, to fatal illnesses, such as AIDS.
Bloodborne Pathogens We occasionally come into contact with people or animals that are infected and thus expose ourselves to the pathogens of their diseases. In fact, our environment is such that everyday we live with some risk of exposure to diseases.
Bloodborne Pathogens Some individuals, because of the work they do, are “at risk” for occupationally acquired infection. For this reason, DACC has developed training and procedures to help minimize your health risks. This training program will cover: the infectious disease process potential exposure risks to employees work practices that will minimize your risk of exposure to pathogenic microorganisms Let's start by exploring the infectious disease process.
Bloodborne Pathogens The infectious disease process is defined as the interaction between the pathogenic microorganism, the environment, and the host. The process may be thought of as a circular chain with six links. The following story illustrates the chain…
Bloodborne Pathogens The chain begins with the existence of a specific pathogenic microorganism. The second link is the reservoir, an environment where the pathogen can survive.
Bloodborne Pathogens The third link is the means of escape from the reservoir. The fourth link is the mode of transmission from the reservoir to the host.
Bloodborne Pathogens The fifth link is the means of entry into the host. And the last link is the host's susceptibility to the pathogenic microorganism.
Bloodborne Pathogens For an infectious disease to occur, each link in the chain must be connected.
Bloodborne Pathogens If even one link of the chain is missing, it interrupts the process, and no infection will occur. Here the chain is broken at the point of host susceptibility.
Bloodborne Pathogens Here the mode of transmission breaks the chain of infection. Before looking at the infectious disease process for several different illnesses, see if you can correctly answer the following question…
Bloodborne Pathogens The chain of infection illustrates? A. Contact with a pathogen means you will become fatally ill. B. Every link in the chain must be broken to prevent infection. C. You can prevent infection by interrupting the process anywhere in the chain. D. All microorganisms are hazardous to your health. And the answer is…
Bloodborne Pathogens C. You can prevent infection by interrupting the process anywhere in the chain.
Bloodborne Pathogens Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) The microorganism known as Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) causes an inflammation of the liver. This can result in illnesses such as chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis of the liver, and liver cancer. Because the virus is present in the blood or body fluids of a person with the Hepatitis B Virus, it is termed a bloodborne pathogen. Hepatitis B Virus is a serious health concern for any employee whose work responsibilities bring them in contact with blood or body fluids.
Bloodborne Pathogens Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is another bloodborne pathogen. This life-threatening virus compromises the body's immune system. Early symptoms may be similar to those of the flu. During later stages of the disease, the body is incapable of warding off other infections which frequently prove fatal.
Bloodborne Pathogens Penetration into the Bloodstream Bloodborne pathogens are transmitted when an individual comes in contact with an infected person's blood or body fluids. However, contact alone does not mean infection will result. Pathogens must enter the bloodstream to cause infection. In the workplace, an employee may be exposed to HBV or HIV when infected blood or body fluid is allowed to enter the body by means of penetration. This can occur through: a needle stick a cut or break in the skin contact with mucous membranes such as those of the eye, nose, and mouth
Bloodborne Pathogens Preventive Measures To interrupt the chain of infection for HBV or HIV, use the following preventive measures: Wash your hands to remove infectious organisms before they can enter the body. Wear gloves as a barrier when handling blood and other body fluids. Wear face protection when work tasks include the potential for spraying or splattering of body substances.
Bloodborne Pathogens Use caution when handling needles or other sharp objects. They can penetrate the skin and create entries for pathogens. The safest way to handle contaminated needles or other sharp objects is to place them directly into a labeled sharps container without recapping. This practice minimizes your risk of a needle stick. If your work requires you to recap needles, you will want to learn a special one-handed technique. Finally, receive an HBV vaccination to decrease your susceptibility to the disease. Presently, no vaccine for HIV is available.
Bloodborne Pathogens Preventing infection from bloodborne pathogens involves? A. Vaccination against HIV. B. Preventing blood or body fluids from contacting your skin or mucous membranes. C. Washing your hands before beginning work. D. Wearing gloves as a barrier against needle sticks. The answer is…
Bloodborne Pathogens B. Preventing blood or body fluids from contacting your skin or mucous membranes.
Bloodborne Pathogens Mycobacterium (tuberculosis) Another group of pathogens known as Mycobacterium cause the chronic lung disease tuberculosis (TB). Although human beings are the main reservoirs, other primates, cattle, and swine can also be reservoirs. TB is transmitted primarily through the air. A person with an active case of TB discharges the microorganisms by coughing or sneezing. Inhalation: Exposure occurs when others breathe the contaminated air. Once inhaled, the pathogen may lodge in lung tissue and produce lesions.
Bloodborne Pathogens Preventive Measures How then can employees protect themselves from airborne diseases such as TB? If necessary, and risk factors for TB are present, wear respiratory protection. Screen yourself for exposure to TB by receiving a TB skin test.
Bloodborne Pathogens TB is an airborne disease? A. Transmitted by plants. That used to be a health concern, but is not relevant in the workplace any longer. C. Prevented by wearing a respiratory mask to prevent inhaling contaminated air. Prevented by holding your breath. The answer is…
Bloodborne Pathogens C. Prevented by wearing a respiratory mask to prevent inhaling contaminated air.
Bloodborne Pathogens Salmonella The next disease, salmonellas, is caused by a group of bacteria called salmonella. The most common manifestation of this disease is acute gastroenteritis or intestinal inflammation. Both animals and humans are reservoirs for the salmonella organism. Diseased animals and humans discharge large numbers of salmonella in their feces.
Bloodborne Pathogens Ingestion Infection results from ingesting (i.e., through the mouth) salmonella organisms. Employees may be exposed to these organisms when handling soiled diapers and linens, working with animals, or cleaning and maintaining restrooms.
Bloodborne Pathogens Preventive Measures You can guard against salmonella exposure by incorporating the following practices into your daily routine: As a first line defense against ingesting microorganisms, don't put anything in your mouth while at work. Wear gloves when your hands will likely come in contact with contaminated materials.
Bloodborne Pathogens Wipe counters with a disinfectant after performing tasks with materials that may be contaminated. And, thoroughly wash your hands after handling potentially contaminated items. Even microscopic amounts of fecal matter may contain millions of salmonella organisms.
Bloodborne Pathogens Preventing ingestion of salmonella organisms involves? A. Not washing your hands if they look clean. B. Wearing gloves, washing hands, and disinfecting work surfaces. C. Not eating right after work. Putting only your own pencils and pens in your mouth. The answer is…
Bloodborne Pathogens B. Wearing gloves, washing hands, and disinfecting work surfaces.
Bloodborne Pathogens In summary, the infectious disease process typically consists of three routes of entry: PENETRATION into the bloodstream, exemplified by HBV and HIV; INHALATION of airborne organisms, illustrated by TB; and INGESTION of organisms, demonstrated by salmonella. As seen in the examples, occupational exposures and consequent infection can occur not only as the result of accidents but also during the performance of routine work activities. Therefore, it makes good sense to plan your work with regard to the basic principles of biosafety.
Bloodborne Pathogens The best strategy to decrease your risk of infection is to? A. Enhance your susceptibility through proper nutrition. B. Not worry about things you cannot see. C. Rely on vaccination. D. Break the chain of infection by using several preventive measures. The answer is…
Bloodborne Pathogens D. Break the chain of infection by using several preventive measures.
Bloodborne Pathogens “AT RISK” employees continue! At risk employee groups include, but are not limited to: Athletic Trainers and Coaches Building Services Attendants Child Development Center staff First Aid / CPR Instructor Groundskeeper Instructors of Invasive Labs Maintenance Mechanics Nursing and C. N. A. staff Science Lab staff
Bloodborne Pathogens Part II: Exposure Control Strategies
Bloodborne Pathogens The next part of this program will cover exposure control strategies that include the use of: universal precautions immunization good personal work habits containment personal protective equipment decontamination emergency procedures for accidental exposures
Bloodborne Pathogens Universal Precautions Universal precautions are work practices that reduce your risk of exposure to pathogens found in blood and body fluids, particularly HBV and HIV. A government regulation referred to as the "Bloodborne Pathogen Rule" requires that employees with a risk of occupational exposure receive training in universal precautions and other safety measures. At-risk employees are those individuals whose work responsibilities could potentially bring them in contact with blood and body fluids.
Bloodborne Pathogens Preventing Accidental Exposures Most occupational exposures to bloodborne pathogens occur accidentally from: needle sticks injuries from sharp objects splashes to the eyes, nose, and mouth contact with broken skin The following universal precautions are aimed at preventing these exposures: Eliminate the use of needles and sharp instruments whenever possible. Choose safer alternatives for your work tasks. When use of needles and sharps is required, place used items directly into a sharps container located within easy reach. Remember that recapping should be avoided, because it increases your risk of needle stick injuries. Use only labeled, leak-proof, puncture-resistant sharps containers to help avoid accidental exposure of co-workers and waste handlers down the line.
Bloodborne Pathogens Wear personal protective equipment such as gloves, face shields, eyewear with side shields, and gowns to prevent contact with blood and body fluids. Properly decontaminate or dispose of this equipment after use. Wash your hands routinely, even after removing gloves. Gloves may have minute holes through which fluids can pass.
Bloodborne Pathogens Immunization Finally, decrease your susceptibility to infection by being immunized. Recommended Vaccines: HBV for potential exposure to blood or body fluids Measles, Rubella, Diphtheria, Poliomyelitis, and Tetanus for anyone who has not been vaccinated in childhood Tetanus and Rabies for work with animals Other vaccines for foreign travel and research with pathogens
Bloodborne Pathogens The HBV vaccine is offered free of charge to all employees who may be occupationally exposed to blood or other body fluids. The vaccine is effective in more than 90% of healthy people who receive the series of injections. It is administered intramuscularly in three doses within a six-month period. The most common side effect of vaccination is soreness at the injection site. If you decide against vaccination, you will be required to sign a declination form. However, you will remain eligible for vaccination if you desire it at a later time.
Bloodborne Pathogens Following universal precautions means you should? A. Handle every sample as if it is infectious. B. Use protective equipment only when you think the sample is from a patient with HBV. C. Think about washing your hands and do so when you have time. Use needles and blades whenever possible. The answer is…
Bloodborne Pathogens A. Handle every sample as if it is infectious.
Bloodborne Pathogens Good Personal Work Habits Hand Washing: Conscientious hand washing is an essential part of your daily regimen. Hands routinely come into contact with items and materials that may be contaminated with pathogens. Hands also unconsciously touch the eyes, nose, and mouth numerous times throughout the day. These body areas are potential portals of entry for infectious organisms. Because of these factors, it is extremely important to wash your hands frequently. Wash hands immediately if you contact potentially contaminated material. Wash them after: handling infectious waste, even if it is properly contained removal of gloves using the restroom And finally, wash your hands before going on breaks and before leaving work at the end of the day.
Bloodborne Pathogens Proper hand washing involves the following steps: Wet both hands and wrists. Lather well using two squirts of soap or hand washing solution. Spread the lather to the back of the hands and wrists. Clean between the fingers. Washing time should be at least 10 seconds. Rinse hands and wrists well to remove all soap. Dry hands completely. Turn off the water using disposable towels when the faucet has handles. This prevents recontamination of the hands.
Bloodborne Pathogens Many personal activities increase the risk of exposure to pathogens transmitted by hand and mouth. Therefore, the following activities are discouraged in your work area: smoking (prohibited) eating or drinking food storage application of cosmetics or contact lens
Bloodborne Pathogens Hand washing is an important work habit because? A. It is easy for everyone to remember. B. After you wash your hands, you can eat lunch in the lab. C. It removes pathogens that you may not know are on your hands. One thorough cleansing lasts all day. The answer is…