Instructor • Prof. Steven Dutch • Office: RH 352 • Phone: 465-2246 • Email: email@example.com • Home Page: www.uwgb.edu/dutchs
What is Physical Geology? Erosion Wind Soils Oceans Glaciers Water Weathering Surface Underground Sedimentary Fossils Earth History Rocks Volcanoes Metamorphic Igneous Earth’s Interior Intrusions Plate Tectonics Earthquakes Mineral Resources Mountains Other Planets
Introduction to the course Minerals Igneous Rocks and Volcanoes Weathering and Erosion Evolution of Landscapes Sedimentary Rocks Evolution, Fossils, Geologic Time Glaciers Wind and Wave Erosion Metamorphism and Deformation Earthquakes and Earth's Interior Continental Drift and Plate Tectonics Resources from the Earth Geology of other Worlds Syllabus
Midterm I 50 points Midterm II 50 points Lab 100 points Final 80 points Field Trip 20 points Total 300 points A 270+ AB 255-269 B 240-254 BC 225-239 C 210-224 D 200-209 Exams and Grading
Field Trip • Dates • Mandatory – Absence Excuse Required • 8:00 LS Parking Lot, Return 4:15 • Casual Clothing – No strenuous hiking • Bring a lunch and fluids • Rest stops provided • Put on your calendar! No excuses!
Lab • Instructor: Dawn Walczyk • Enroll in one section • 100 points total
Geology and Other Sciences • Chemistry • Mineralogy • Petrology • Geochemistry • Physics • Geophysics • Seismology • Biology • Paleontology • Paleo????ology Geology • Astronomy • Planetary Geology • Helioseismology • Historical Geology • Geomorphology • Oceanography • Structural Geology • Volcanology • Economic Geology • Hydrology • Engineering Geology
Who Geoscientists Are: • About 30,000 in the U.S. • Globally, in rich and poor countries, about one per $50 million GNP. • Mostly male but changing rapidly (now about 25% female in U.S.) • Still less than 10% minority in U.S. (moving up slowly)
Where Geologists Work • 40 % Private Sector • 30 % Academic • 30 % Government
What Geologists Do: • Locate Geologic Resources • Geologic Hazard Mitigation • Geological and Mining Engineering • Site Study • Land-Use Planning • Environmental Protection • Environmental Impact • Ground Water and Waste Management • Basic Research (Furnishes fundamental knowledge for the applications)
Some Unique Aspects of Geology Importance of Relationships • Sequential • Spatial Importance of Time Distinctive Problems of Evidence • Slow Rates • Rare Events • Destruction of Evidence • Inaccessibility
Some Geologic Rates Cutting of Grand Canyon • 2 km/3 m.y. = 1 cm/15 yr Uplift of Alps • 5 km/10 m.y. = 1 cm/20 yr. Opening of Atlantic • 5000 km/180 m.y. = 2.8 cm/yr. Uplift of White Mtns. (N.H.) Granites • 8 km/150 m.y. = 1 cm/190 yr.
Some Geologic Rates Movement of San Andreas Fault • 5 cm/yr = 7 m/140 yr. Growth of Mt. St. Helens • 3 km/30,000 yr = 10 cm/yr. Deposition of Niagara Dolomite • 100 m/ 1 m.y.? = 1 cm/100 yr.
1 Second = 1 Year • 35 minutes to birth of Christ • 1 hour+ to pyramids • 3 hours to retreat of glaciers from Wisconsin • 12 days = 1 million years • 2 years to extinction of dinosaurs • 14 years to age of Niagara Escarpment • 31 years = 1 billion years
Some Unique Aspects of Geology (Continued) Reliance on Inference and Deduction Intrinsically "Unsolvable" Problems • Ancient Landscapes • Mass Extinctions • Ancient Ocean Basins
Scientific Principles in Geology • Parsimony (K.I.S.S.) • Superposition • Uniformitarianism Using these, plus observation, we establish facts about Earth Processes
Parsimony • The simplest explanation that fits all the data is preferred • Doesn’t guarantee that things must be simple! • Theories with lots of ad hoc or unsupported ideas are probably wrong.
Parsimony • This? • Or This?
Rock layers throughout NE Wisconsin are nearly flat and little disturbed Glacial deposits are always on top of bedrock Therefore this is the most likely interpretation Parsimony
One Implication of Parsimony How do we know the laws of nature are the same everywhere? • Out to the farthest stars, everything seems to obey the same laws of nature • We find nothing in the rocks to suggest the laws of nature were different in the past Either: • The laws of nature change but just happen to produce effects that look like the presently-known laws of nature – or – • The laws of nature really are the same everywhere
Another Implication of Parsimony • We live in a universe of patterns • If someone claims there is an exception to a known pattern, the simplest explanation is that he/she is wrong • Therefore the burden of proof in science is on the challenger
Superposition Whodunit? • Last night, one of Green Bay’s premier beer can collections was stolen • The only clue is footprints in the snow • The thief was the last person to leave the premises
The Suspects • The Nephew Has a seeing-eye dog • The Maid Drives a car • The Cook Rides a motorcycle • The Handyman Rides a bike • The Butler Walks to work
The Crime Scene • The Nephew has a seeing-eye dog • The Maid Drives a car • The Cook Rides a motorcycle • The Handyman Rides a bike • The Butler Walks to work
Uniformitarianism Continuity of Cause and Effect • Apply Cause and Effect to Future - Prediction • Apply Cause and Effect to Present - Technology • Apply Cause and Effect to Past - Uniformitarianism
Uniformitarianism does not mean: • Catastrophes never occur • Physical Conditions on Earth never Change • Earth has always been the same • Physical processes always occur at the same rate or intensity • Laws of Physics have always been the same
Uniformitarianism does mean: Using our knowledge of physical laws, we can test: • Whether catastrophes have occurred • Whether physical conditions on earth have changed, and if so, how (ice ages, warm periods, high or low sea level, etc.) • Whether physical laws themselves have changed in time, or elsewhere in the universe.