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Self-Directed Care: The Basics

Self-Directed Care: The Basics

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Self-Directed Care: The Basics

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  1. Self-Directed Care: The Basics Judith A. Cook, PhD Professor & Director National Research & Training Center on Psychiatric Disability University of Illinois at Chicago, Department of Psychiatry

  2. What is Self-Directed Care? Funds ordinarily paid to service provider agencies are controlled by service recipients • Participants develop person-centered recovery plans • They then create individual budgets allocating dollar amounts to achieve the plan’s goals • Staff called life coaches available to help people purchase services & goods named in their plans • Fiscal intermediary provides financial management services such as provider billing & payroll taxes

  3. Person-Centered Plan Helps people to identify… • Who they are & how they want to live • Future goals based on how they want to live • Barriers to their goals • Supports & services that can facilitate success • Action plan & timeline related to their goals

  4. SDC Core Value: Participants Take Control

  5. Individual Budget • Budget flows from the person-centered plan • Line items relate directly to goals specified in the plan • Direct connection between achievement of goals & budgeted goods & services • Participant monitors budget on ongoing basis

  6. SDC Core Value: Personal Responsibility

  7. Role of the Life Coach • Helps participant develop person-centered plan & budget • Helps navigate community resources • Assists with managing the budget • Helps recruit, hire, & negotiate rates with providers • Helps train & supervise (if requested) & discharge providers (if requested) • Helps develop & implement emergency plans • Assist with billing through the Fiscal Intermediary • Always a co-pilot - never the pilot (Adapted from My Voice/My Choice, Idaho Dept of Health & Welfare)

  8. SDC Core Value: Absence of Conflict of Interest

  9. Participants Can Choose Service Substitutions • Replace formal services with informal services • Replace services with “normal” community activities • Replace public services with private services • Replace services with goods Less restrictive, more flexible goods & services that the participant chooses in order to achieve recovery goals

  10. SDC Core Value: Maximizing Choice

  11. How Well Does SDC work?… • Randomized evaluation of Cash & Counseling programs (for elderly & people with physical & developmental disabilities) • Outcomes of SDC participants were as good or better than regular fee-for-service clients (FFS) • SDC participants received more services than their FFS counterparts • Budget neutrality prevailed by end of 2nd year • Consumer satisfaction was significantly higher among those served in SDC • Incidences of fraudulent behavior were low • Hiring (& firing) friends/family members not problematic (Foster, Brown et al., Health Affairs, 2003)

  12. How Well Does SDC work in MH? • Pre/Post study of original Florida SDC Program members comparing their outcomes in the year prior to the year after they entered the program. • Participants spent a significantly higher number of days in the community in the year after joining the program • Participants scored significantly higher on global functioning in the year after program initiation • Only 16% were hospitalized (5% involuntarily admitted) • At follow-up, 33% held paid employment, 19% receiving job skills training, 16% in volunteer activities, 7% enrolled in postsecondary education, & 3% in GED classes. • Of direct expenditures by participants, 47% was spent on traditional psychiatric services, 13% on service substitutions for traditional care, 29% on goods, 8% on medical care, & 3% on transportation. (Cook, Russell et al., Psychiatric Services, 2008)

  13. How Well Does SDC work in MH? • Compared outcomes of FloridaSDC program members in 2 districts with a matched comparison group of clients receiving services in those districts (matched on gender, minority status & education) • No significant differences in re-hospitalization rates between SDC & non-participants • SDC participants had significantly lower usage of crisis stabilization & crisis support than comparison group • SDC care clients had significantly higher numbers of assessments, outpatient MH services, & supported employment than comparison group • SDC participants had no differences in residential stability or number of days worked vs. matched group (Department of Children and Families, R. L. Hall, January 2007)

  14. How are Mental Health SDC Programs Funded? • State general revenue (for individuals not covered by Medicaid) • State general revenue combined with Medicaid in some manner: • Add-on to Medicaid: Medicaid beneficiaries receive additional funds for SDC through 1) state MH dollars, 2) CMS Real Choice System Change Grants, 3) CMS Community Reinvestment Funds • Medicaid funding pooled with other funds such as: 1) state MH dollars, 2) MH Block Grant, 3) local funds (

  15. Polling Question Does your state or local mental health authority area allow clients to hire their own providers or make purchases of goods that support recovery? a. Yes, goods can be purchased or providers hired directly by clients b. No, neither of these is available

  16. Materials You Can Use to Advocate for SDC in Your Area SDC Fact Sheet Funding Options Planning Guide Managed Care & SDC For more information, see your web links for this webinar

  17. SDC: A Tale of Two States • Florida – initial successful pilot program has been replicated in another region of the state, with plans to expand to other areas • Texas – launching pilot program after extensive community consensus building & in the context of a rigorous randomized trial study Texas Florida

  18. Florida Self Directed Care Gene Costlow, MA, LCSW Private Consultant* Human Services Program Director Department of Children and Families Office of Substance Abuse & Mental Health *The views and opinions of the author do not necessarily represent those of the State of Florida.

  19. Florida SDC’s 2 Locations & Host Organizations Circuit 3 Nassau, Duval, Clay counties Circuit 20 Charlotte, Glades, Hendry, Lee, Collier counties Mental Health Resource Center NAMI of Collier County

  20. How Florida SDC Works • A person without Medicaid can spend up to $3700/year • A person with Medicaid continues using it whenever possible & has an additional $1924/year to use for good & services Medicaid doesn’t cover • People must be willing to leave their current services in order to begin SDC • Life coaches are available to assist with all SDC components • SDC is available as an ongoing program

  21. Things We Did Right In the Florida SDC Program

  22. We Built Community Consensus& National Support

  23. We Found A Champion Aaron Bean (R) District 12 We Passed a State Law

  24. We Made Sure That The Participants Owned The Program

  25. We Hired A Very Smart & Determined Program

  26. We Used The Research

  27. We Never Stopped Talking About Florida SDC

  28. We Used Old Brains & Ideas We Were Not Afraid of Failure “Fortune favors the bold” – Virgil

  29. Polling Question Do you know of local advocacy groups (e.g., NAMI, Mental Health America, Consumer Networks) in your area that might be willing to start working on an SDC initiative? a) Yes • No • I’m not sure

  30. Things We Should Have Done Better

  31. Financing & Contracting SDC does not fit into most existing state or federal methods for budgeting & contracting for behavioral health care. Medicaid funding is the future of SDC We should have spent more time exploring the available options & working with the State Medicaid Office

  32. Build It & They Won’t Necessarily Come Although the brilliance of SDC was obvious to all of us who worked on it, most of the potential participants & providers had no idea what we were talking about. We should have done more work on educating all parties & had a formal orientation program in place before lift off.

  33. Use of Peers & the Life Coach Model When SDC began, the concept of using peer specialists in mental health was new, even though it was happening just across the border in Georgia. We also assumed that the State Comptroller’s Office & Medicaid would object to staff roles that were too “different” We should have used peer staff from the beginning & also should have had a model for training & supervising life coaches

  34. Use of Technology SDC involves a large number of individual transactions & our current administrative structure generates too much paperwork. We should have studied the use of EBT cards and electronic records.

  35. SDC Advisory Board Who knew that advisory boards do more than meet for lunch? Our board turned out to be pivotal to the program’s success. We should have spent more time preparing the participant board members on a wide range of financial, budgetary, & political issues.

  36. Research & Academic Partnership At various times SDC worked with local universities but these relationships were not enduring. We should have understood the importance of this link to developing better outcome measurement & establishing an evidence based practice. We should have spent more time with consumers to figure out better short and long term measures of recovery.

  37. Recovery Review Process & Social Networking In real life, we all have friends, family, & co- workers that do their best to keep us headed in the right direction. We didn’t use SDC participants to systematically guide, encourage, & inspire each other, i.e., to have more fun with their recovery.

  38. On The Florida SDC To Do List • Model SDC Contract • SDC Administrative Rule • SDC Business Plan • Medicaid Waiver • Vocational Rehab Waiver • Find A Research Partner • SDC Personal Outcome Indicators • Oversight of Life Coaches • Mental Health Co Operative • OPPAGA Study • SDC Foster Care

  39. Think Like A Pirate “ No one gives up power willingly.”

  40. SDC is a Team Sport SDC requires that the state, service providers, academic community, & participants play their positions & carry out their assignments. While a game plan is important, execution & the ability to transcend adversity are the difference between victory & defeat. To date, the State of Texas & the University of Illinois at Chicago have my vote for being Number 1.

  41. Texas Self-Directed Care ProgramSam Shore, MSSW Transformation DirectorCenter for Policy and InnovationTexas Department of State Health Services

  42. Texas SDC Location & Host Organization North STAR Region North Texas Behavioral Health Authority

  43. How Texas SDC Works • Regardless of Medicaid eligibility, participants have $4,000/year to purchase goods & services, with up to $7,000/year available for individuals who need high levels of service • People must be willing to leave their current services in order to begin SDC • Life coaches (called SDC Advisors) are available to assist with all SDC components • SDC is available for 2 years as a pilot program & only for those willing to participate in the program evaluation

  44. Genesis of the TX SDC Program • UIC & DSHS have a history of working together to bring evidence-based practice & community consensus to the public mental health system in Texas

  45. Public-Academic Partnership for Texas SDC • State of TX awarded Transformation Grant from CMHS/SAMHSA • UIC Center receiving funding to study self-determination financing mechanisms through NIDRR/USDOE & CMHS/SAMHSA

  46. Why the Dallas North STAR Area? • Managed care waiver already in place in the 7-county North STAR area • Braided funding system in place for Medicaid and State general revenue funds • Value Options managed care company already administering a network of diverse MH providers • Local mental health authority is a conflict of interest-free willing partner

  47. Creating a Climate of Change • UIC & DSHS mobilized & educated the community – brought together people in MH recovery, advocates, providers, academics, family members • Motivated & educated DSHS staff • Created a set of multi-stakeholder subcommittees that worked collaboratively to design the program • Included community providers to ensure that their needs were addressed

  48. TX SDC Community Advisory Board Subcommittees (included consumers, providers, UIC, DSHS, state VR, managed care, NAMI, MHA, & other advocates) Personnel Technology Provider Network Purchasing Program Operations Convened collaboratively via teleconference by UIC & DSHS

  49. Use of Technology • Program designed by community advisory committees that met via teleconferencing & listserv • Participant purchases made with debit cards • Participants communicate with each other via a Chat Room closed to outsiders • Support brokers travel with laptops & portable printers, with wireless capability

  50. Texas SDC Website keeps participants, staff, funders, & public informed