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Hydro power plants

Hydro power plants

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Hydro power plants

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  1. Hydro power plants

  2. Hydro power plants Inlet gate Air inlet Surge shaft Penstock Tunnel Sand trap Trash rack Self closing valve Tail water Main valve Turbine Draft tube Draft tube gate

  3. The principle the water conduits of a traditional high head power plant

  4. Ulla- Førre Original figur ved Statkraft Vestlandsverkene

  5. Arrangement of a small hydropower plant

  6. Ligga Power Plant, Norrbotten, Sweden H = 39 m Q = 513 m3/s P = 182 MW Drunner=7,5 m

  7. Borcha Power Plant, Turkey H = 87,5 m P = 150 MW Drunner=5,5 m

  8. Water intake • Dam • Coarse trash rack • Intake gate • Sediment settling basement

  9. Dams • Rockfill dams • Pilar og platedammer • Hvelvdammer

  10. Rock-fill dams • Core Moraine, crushed soft rock, concrete, asphalt • Filter zone Sandy gravel • Transition zone Fine blasted rock • Supporting shell Blasted rock

  11. Slab concrete dam

  12. Arc dam

  13. Gates in Hydro Power Plants

  14. Types of Gates • Radial Gates • Wheel Gates • Slide Gates • Flap Gates • Rubber Gates

  15. Radial Gates at Älvkarleby, Sweden

  16. Radial Gate The forces acting on the arc will be transferred to the bearing

  17. Slide Gate Jhimruk Power Plant, Nepal

  18. Flap Gate

  19. Rubber gate Flow disturbance Reinforced rubber Open position Reinforced rubber Closed position Bracket Air inlet

  20. Circular gate End cover Hinge Ribs Manhole Pipe Ladder Bolt Fastening element Seal Frame

  21. Circular gate Jhimruk Power Plant, Nepal

  22. Trash Racks Panauti Power Plant, Nepal

  23. Theun Hinboun Power Plant Laos

  24. Gravfoss Power Plant Norway Trash Rack size: Width: 12 meter Height: 13 meter Stainless Steel

  25. CompRack Trash Rack delivered by VA-Tech

  26. Cleaning the trash rack

  27. Pipes • Materials • Calculation of the change of length due to the change of the temperature • Calculation of the head loss • Calculation of maximum pressure • Static pressure • Water hammer • Calculation of the pipe thickness • Calculation of the economical correct diameter • Calculation of the forces acting on the anchors

  28. Materials • Steel • Polyethylene, PE • Glass-fibre reinforced Unsaturated Polyesterplastic , GUP • Wood • Concrete

  29. Materials

  30. Steel pipes in penstockNore Power Plant, Norway

  31. GUP-PipeRaubergfossen Power Plant, Norway

  32. Wood Pipes Breivikbotn Power Plant, Norway Øvre Porsa Power Plant, Norway

  33. Calculation of the change of length due to the change of the temperature Where: DL = Change of length [m] L = Length [m] a = Coefficient of thermal expansion [m/oC m] DT = Change of temperature [oC]

  34. Calculation of the head loss Where: hf = Head loss [m] f = Friction factor [ - ] L = Length of pipe [m] D = Diameter of the pipe [m] c = Water velocity [m/s] g = Gravity [m/s2]

  35. ExampleCalculation of the head loss Power Plant data: H = 100 m Head Q = 10 m3/s Flow Rate L = 1000 m Length of pipe D = 2,0 m Diameter of the pipe The pipe material is steel Where: c = 3,2 m/s Water velocity n = 1,308·10-6 m2/s Kinetic viscosity Re = 4,9 ·106 Reynolds number

  36. Where: Re = 4,9 ·106 Reynolds number e = 0,045 mm Roughness D = 2,0 m Diameter of the pipe e/D = 2,25 ·10-5 Relative roughness f = 0,013 Friction factor The pipe material is steel 0,013

  37. ExampleCalculation of the head loss Power Plant data: H = 100 m Head Q = 10 m3/s Flow Rate L = 1000 m Length of pipe D = 2,0 m Diameter of the pipe The pipe material is steel Where: f = 0,013 Friction factor c = 3,2 m/s Water velocity g = 9,82 m/s2 Gravity

  38. Calculation of maximum pressure • Static head, Hgr(Gross Head) • Water hammer, Dhwh • Deflection between pipe supports • Friction in the axial direction Hgr

  39. Maximum pressure rise due to the Water Hammer Jowkowsky Dhwh = Pressure rise due to water hammer [mWC] a = Speed of sound in the penstock [m/s] cmax = maximum velocity [m/s] g = gravity [m/s2] c

  40. ExampleJowkowsky a = 1000 [m/s] cmax = 10 [m/s] g = 9,81 [m/s2] c=10 m/s

  41. C L Maximum pressure rise due to the Water Hammer Where: Dhwh = Pressure rise due to water hammer [mWC] a = Speed of sound in the penstock [m/s] cmax = maximum velocity [m/s] g = gravity [m/s2] L = Length [m] TC = Time to close the main valve or guide vanes [s]

  42. Example L = 300 [m] TC = 10 [s] cmax = 10 [m/s] g = 9,81 [m/s2] C=10 m/s L

  43. st st p ri t Calculation of the pipe thickness • Based on: • Material properties • Pressure from: • Water hammer • Static head Where: L = Length of the pipe [m] Di = Inner diameter of the pipe [m] p = Pressure inside the pipe [Pa] st = Stresses in the pipe material [Pa] t = Thickness of the pipe [m] Cs = Coefficient of safety [ - ] r = Density of the water [kg/m3] Hgr = Gross Head [m] Dhwh = Pressure rise due to water hammer [m]

  44. st st p ri t ExampleCalculation of the pipe thickness • Based on: • Material properties • Pressure from: • Water hammer • Static head Where: L = 0,001 m Length of the pipe Di = 2,0 m Inner diameter of the pipe st = 206 MPa Stresses in the pipe material r = 1000 kg/m3 Density of the water Cs = 1,2 Coefficient of safety Hgr = 100 m Gross Head Dhwh = 61 m Pressure rise due to water hammer

  45. Calculation of the economical correct diameter of the pipe Total costs, Ktot Cost [$] Installation costs, Kt Costs for hydraulic losses, Kf Diameter [m]

  46. ExampleCalculation of the economical correct diameter of the pipeHydraulic Losses Power Plant data: H = 100 m Head Q = 10 m3/s Flow Rate hplant = 85 % Plant efficiency L = 1000 m Length of pipe Where: PLoss = Loss of power due to the head loss [W] r = Density of the water [kg/m3] g = gravity [m/s2] Q = Flow rate [m3/s] hf = Head loss [m] f = Friction factor [ - ] L = Length of pipe [m] r = Radius of the pipe [m] C2 = Calculation coefficient

  47. ExampleCalculation of the economical correct diameter of the pipeCost of the Hydraulic Losses per year Where: Kf = Cost for the hydraulic losses [€] PLoss = Loss of power due to the head loss [W] T = Energy production time [h/year] kWhprice = Energy price [€/kWh] r = Radius of the pipe [m] C2 = Calculation coefficient

  48. ExampleCalculation of the economical correct diameter of the pipePresent value of the Hydraulic Losses per year Where: Kf = Cost for the hydraulic losses [€] T = Energy production time [h/year] kWhprice = Energy price [€/kWh] r = Radius of the pipe [m] C2 = Calculation coefficient Present value for 20 year of operation: Where: Kf pv = Present value of the hydraulic losses [€] n = Lifetime, (Number of year ) [-] I = Interest rate [-]