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Wars of the Eighteenth Century

Wars of the Eighteenth Century

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Wars of the Eighteenth Century

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  1. Wars of the Eighteenth Century

  2. War of Spanish Succession (1701 – 1714) • Spanish King Charles II was sickly and did not have an heir • France’s Louis XIV and Austria’s Leopold I – had equal claim to be next in line • Charles wills his territory to Philip (grandson of Louis XIV) • Causes uproar as concern over France and Spain under one royal family – Austria declares war on France • Other Powers join the war • England, Holland and Prussia support Austria • Spain and Bavaria support France

  3. Rapid attempt to take Spanish Hapsburg territory • 1704 – Battle of Blenheim – attempt by Louis to take Vienna – Austrian/English victory under the Duke of Marlborough – turning point in the war. • English and Austrian forces push France out of Spanish Netherlands and Italy and take Gibraltar • Treaty of Utrecht (1713) Treaty of Rastatt (1714) end the war • Philip V remains king of Spain but France and Spain can never unite • England received Nfld. NS. and Hudson Bay • Idea of Balance of Power in Europe

  4. War of Austrian Succession (1740 – 1748) • Louis XIV dies in 1715 leaving France economically broken – but still powerful • 1740 – Maria Teresa becomes Empress of Austria • Salic Law – old law from before Charlemagne that women could not inherit the throne • France (Louis XV) and Prussia (Frederick II “the Great”) – saw it as an excuse to dismantle the Hapsburg empire • Great Britain and Netherlands supported Austria • Became a series of wars

  5. First Silesian War (1740- 1742) – Prussia takes Silesia and Bavaria invades Bohemia and Austria – Bavarians defeated but Prussia given Silesia • ‘Bonnie Prince Charlie’(1745) – France supports uprising by Charles Edward Stuart (heir of previous King James) • Got Scottish support but not French reinforcements • defeated at Battle of Culloden (1746)

  6. British pushed out of mainland Europe and French take Austrian Netherlands but French and British wage naval battles across the globe • Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748) – restores status quo in Europe • Prussia retains Silesia • Maria Theresa retained her power

  7. Seven Years War (1756 – 1763) • Two primary struggles: • Colonial struggle between Britain and France • German supremacy between Prussia and Austria • First ‘World War’ • France and Austria become allies • Initial Prussian losses to Austria, Russia and France but regroup and start to win victories against France • 1759 – Annus Mirabilis – string of English victories over France but also Prussian losses

  8. British Secretary of State (future PM) William Pitt increased army and navy creating string of victories in North America • Conquests in New France (Fort Duquesne [Pittsburgh] and Fort Niagara (1758) • Sept 13, 1759 – General Wolfe takes Quebec City in Battle of Plains of Abraham against Gen. Montcalm • British climb the cliffs forcing a battle on the plains • Lasts barely an hour – both generals killed • Isolates Montreal (taken 1760) – all French Canada is now British

  9. Prussian losses saved by new Russian Czar Peter III • Peace between Russia, Austria and Prussia – eventually leads to partitioning of Poland in 1772 • France brings Spain into war with Britain but with limited success • 1763 – Peace of Paris • France loses all New World possessions • France loses many Pacific possessions and rights

  10. American Revolution(or The American War of Independence – for those of you not of British ancestry ) • By mid 18th C. American colonists differed from Britain • American political, religious, social and economic customs differed from British • 1763,after Treaty of Paris –British gov’t undertook new colonial policy to tighten control over colonies • colonies must pay for their own defense • colonies to return trade revenues to Britain

  11. Various direct and indirect taxes (specifically without political representation) caused political uproar and boycotts on British goods • Although most taxes repealed still outrage over tea tax to curb smuggling • Boston Tea Party (1773) – act of defiance against British East India Company monopoly • Britain responds by punishing Boston • 1774 – First Continental Congress – colonists declare British laws violate natural rights

  12. 1775 – British march to Concord to seize stockpile of weapons (Ride of Paul Revere) • April 19th - British fire on American Minutemen in Lexington as first battle of the war • Militia in Concord force British retreat to Boston • British take heavy losses in several battles and leave Boston in Mar, 1776 • Political ideas of Locke and Paine influence idea of independence • July 4, 1776 – Declaration of Independence

  13. General Washington suffers many early defeats but American victory in Battle of Saratoga (Oct, 1777) becomes turning point • Convinces France and Spain to support the colonies • French and Spanish navy impede troop ships • British General Cornwallis marches north to Yorktown • War taking toll on Americans • Cornwallis supply lines stretched too far • Surrounded at Yorktown and has to surrender (Oct, 1781) • Sept, 1783 – Treaty of Paris – Britain recognizes American independence