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American Civil War (1861 – 1865) PowerPoint Presentation
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American Civil War (1861 – 1865)

American Civil War (1861 – 1865)

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American Civil War (1861 – 1865)

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  1. American Civil War(1861 – 1865)

  2. Themes • Compare and contrast North and South • Highlight some of the important battles of the Civil War and life for soldiers

  3. President Lincoln • Seven states had seceded; many thought he could not handle the situation that was presented to him • Lincoln: Morally opposed to slavery and did not support its spread but would not interfere where it was legal • Affirmed authority over all U.S. territory in states that had seceded from the Union • Result: Conflict

  4. Fort Sumter (April 1861) • Fort Sumter, South Carolina, was low on supplies • Lincoln informed South Carolina’s Governor he was sending food and supplies in an unarmed ship • Confederate soldiers attacked the fort • Lincoln request 75,000 volunteers to suppress the rebellion • No casualties; however war had begun • After battle four more states seceded: - Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas

  5. Secession (1861)

  6. Responses to Secession • Some in Virginia were opposed towards the idea of secession • People from western counties in Virginia chose a new governor and applied for statehood in the Union • Debate also was strong in Tennessee • Both states would eventually join the Confederacy

  7. Confederate States of America (1861-1865) • States: South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas • Constitution: States’ rights and protection of slavery in new territories • President: Jefferson Davis (Sen. of Mississippi & former Secretary of War 53-57) • Capital: Richmond, VA

  8. Border States • Border States – Slave states that remained loyal to the Union • Included: Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri, and West Virginia

  9. Secession (1861)

  10. Lincoln and Border States • Following confrontation in Baltimore, the area became occupied by soldiers • Lincoln suspended writ of habeas corpus - Confederates could be jailed without charges indefinitely

  11. Northern Advantages • Population: • North: 23 states and 22 million • South: 11 states 9 million (5.5 million whites) • Industrial Production and Transportation: • North: 90% of industrial capacity and 71% of railroad mileage • South: 10% of industrial capacity and 29% of railroad mileage Ex. 97% nation’s potential capacity for firearms • Farm Acreage: • North: 75% of nation’s farms • South: 25% of nation’s farms

  12. Union Strategies • Initial Strategy: Anaconda Plan • Blockade of Southern ports • Major campaign to control Mississippi River in order to cut Confederacy in half *Plan seemed great but Lincoln did not have the man power to see it through*

  13. Southern Advantages • “Home Court Advantage” • Most fighting took place in the South • Concrete War Aims • South fought to preserve their way of life Southern life a little over 3 centuries old • North fought to preserve the Union • Officers • Many of the best officers fought with the Confederacy • King Cotton

  14. King Cotton • Years before the Civil War, Southern cotton was traded to majority of European nations • 75% of all raw cotton in Great Britain’s factories came from South • Since 1800, cotton in the South will double almost every 10 years • Southerners gambled the British would intervene • Why did “King Cotton” fail? • British factories had surpluses of raw cotton • Cotton was imported from Egypt and India • Emancipation Proclamation: war to free slaves

  15. Early War 1861-62 • Many leaders thought the war could be short • Battle of Bull Run (June 1861) • Union forces led by Gen. McDowell against Confederated led by Gen. Beauregard • Many people looked upon the battle at a distance • Union forces were initially successful • However, Confederate reinforcements (Stonewall Jackson) arrived and routed Union troops

  16. 1st Battle of Bull Run (Impact) • Union troops were determined never again to be humiliated in battle • Boosted confidence of Confederate forces • South now believed the war would be over very shortly

  17. Early War 1861-62 • Lincoln replaced McDowell with McClellan who created Army of the Potomac • Transformed unorganized troops into disciplined army • Remained cautious during fighting in the East

  18. Shiloh (April 1862) • War in the west • Union forces were led by Ulysses S. Grant • planned an attack on a railroad near the border of Tennessee • However, Confederates staged a surprise attack on Grant

  19. Shiloh

  20. Shiloh • Initially Confederate forces were successful and began to push the Union back • Once reinforcements arrived, the Union will then take over the battle field • Casualties: over 23,000 soldiers

  21. Antietam/Sharpsburg

  22. Antietam/Sharpsburg • Confederates led by Robert E. Lee invaded Maryland • Supplies were needed • Hoped to have their “Saratoga” • If Confederates win the battle, they might receive recognition and foreign aid from European nations

  23. Antietam/Sharpsburg • Tactically a draw’; strategically a Union victory as the invasion was halted • Bloodiest single-day of fighting in the war • (24,000 casualties)

  24. Antietam/Sharpsburg(Impact) • Antietam- diplomatic victory • Lincoln reconsidered his views of the war and slavery • Was against slavery but did not support abolition • Drafted a proclamation to free slaves, but waited for a Union victory

  25. Emancipation Proclamation • Five days after the Battle of Antietam • Freed slaves residing in states in rebellion against the Union • Did not free slaves in states loyal to the Union • January 1, 1863 • Lincoln maintained support of border states, yet it pushed them closer to emancipation • Transform war aims: - Union soldiers now fought to free slaves

  26. Enrollment Act (1863) • Men 20-45 were eligible for draft • Draftee could hire a Substitute to serve in his place • Draftee could also pay $300 to avoid service *Rich man’s war, poor man’s fight

  27. Draft Riots: New York City (July 1863) • Working-class white men rioted and targeted: • Well-dressed white men, African Americans, and supporters of war • Several were injured; at least six blacks were lynched

  28. Confederate Draft (1862) • Similar to North’s “Enrollment Act” • Twenty Negro Law: • Provided exemption for owners of 20 or more slaves • Created resentment among Southerners

  29. Draft results • Draftees: • Union 48,000 • Confederate 120,000 • Total size • Union 2,100,000 • Confederate 800,000

  30. African Soldiers • African Americans enlisted in Union Army after 1862 • Over 180,000 served • Fought in segregated units and lower pay

  31. Civil War Soldiers • Camp life was boring, but diseases could be deadly • Food for Union troops: • Beans, salted pork, pickled beef, hard-tack • Clothes were often supplied by the U.S. Sanitary Commission - Huge civilian organization that coordinated the efforts of thousands of women’s groups to buy and distribute clothing, food and medicine • Food for Confederate troops: • Bacon and cornmeal • Food and clothing were often short in supply • Brutality of combat transformed Union and Confederate soldiers

  32. Civil War Soldiers • Medical care often involved amputations • Possibly 30% of amputees died following surgery due to infection

  33. Civil War Soldiers • Prisoner of War Camps often had poor conditions • Andersonville held over 30,000 • Designed for 10,000 • About 14,000 Union POWs died

  34. War Continues (1863-65) • Victory began to seem dim for the North • Confederates defeated Union troops at Chancellorsville May 1863 • Lee however will lose “Stonewall” Jackson • Union forces were unable to capture Vicksburg • Lee proposed an invasion of the North in 1863

  35. Battle of Gettysburg (July 1863) • Confederate forces (now in the North territory) engaged with Union troops (led by Gen. Meade) at a small town in Pennsylvania • Battle took place over 3 days • Union troops defended Cemetery Ridge • Pickett attacked Union center July 3rd • “Pickett’s charge” a huge defeat for the Confederates

  36. Battle of Gettysburg (July 1863) • Gettysburg was bloodiest engagement of the war • Over 50,000 Union and Confederate casualties • Robert E. Lee lost half his army

  37. Vicksburg (May – July 1863) • Vicksburg fell to Union troops following a 2 month siege • Soon after Union forces controlled the Mississippi • The “tide turned” in favor of the Union

  38. War Continues (1863-65) • Robert E. Lee vs. Ulysses S. Grant • Both veterans of Mexican War • Lee was given position of Gen of Union Army but he succeeded • Battles at: The Wilderness, Spotsylvania Court House, Cold Harbor, Petersburg, Five Forks • ALL loses for Lee

  39. Atlanta (September 1864) • Atlanta fell to Union troops led by Sherman • Atlanta was the industrial capital of the South • Helped Lincoln win re-election • Prior to election Lincoln was criticized by Democratic candidate McClellan and radicals in his own Republican Party during the election

  40. Sherman’s March • Once Sherman took Atlanta his troops marched towards Savannah then to Raleigh • Everywhere Sherman went he burnt down crops, towns, and homes • “Scorched Earth” - Break the South’s will to fight

  41. Appomattox (April 1865) • Lee vs. Grant • Lee retreated from Petersburg; low on men and supplies • Lee surrendered at Appomattox Courthouse April 9, 1865 • Terms of surrender • Confederates could return home • Within weeks other Confederate forces had surrendered

  42. Battle of Palmito Ranch (May 13, 1865) • Location: Palmito Ranch near Brownsville, Texas • Union: most forces had already pulled out of south Texas • Confederates: stationed in Brownsville to protect their supply lines • Mexicans: sided with the Confederates • Battle is recorded as a Confederate victory

  43. Death of a President (April 1865) • April 14, 1865 while attending a play, Lincoln was shot by John Wilkes Booth • Lincoln died the next day

  44. Results of the Civil War (1861-1865) • Slavery ended – how is the government going to address the status of over 4 million blacks • More than 600,000 Americans died - more than WWII, WWI, Vietnam, Korean, Mexican, Revolutionary, 1812 combined 3. Much of the South was destroyed- how would it be rebuilt

  45. Andrew Johnson • Johnson will now take over presidential duties after the death of Abraham Lincoln • Being a southern Democrat, Johnson is going to have a difficult time with Radical Republicans throughout the Reconstruction Era

  46. Advantaged of North and South on eve of war • Outlined key battles of the war