Women and Native American Students in Higher Education EDLD 7432 History of American Higher Education L. Bell, C. Bradford, T. Powell, & C. Zhou
Women in Higher Education • History • 1639-1742 – Early colonial America • Girls were taught to read and write, but not allowed to attend institutions of higher education • Involvement in higher education • Women entering higher education • First boarding school established (1742) • Oberlin College, first college to accept women (1833) • First all-women college established, Mount Holyoke ( 1837) • First women to earn degrees (1841) • Women faced segregation and unfair treatment • Limited curriculum offered to women
Women in Higher Education • Turning Points • 1848 • Seneca Fall Convention to promote education for women • 1862 • Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act • 1908 • National College Women’s Equal Suffrage League • 1920 • Equal Rights Amendment • 1964 • Civil Rights Act • 1972 • Title IX of the Education of Amendments
Women in Higher Education • Impact of Women in Higher Education • Representation today • The number of female students in tertiary institutions has grown almost twice as fast as that of men since 1970. • Women started catching up to men in North America and Western Europe in the 1970s and even surpassed male enrolment rates by the early 1980s. A similar trend occurred in the 1990s in Latin America and the Caribbean, as well as in Central Asia. (Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, UNESCO, 2010)
Impact of Women in Higher Education • The Arab States, as well as East Asia and the Pacific regions just reached the parity line, after decades of steady growth in female enrolment. • However, women continue to be disadvantaged in South and West Asia and in sub-Saharan Africa. Across sub-Saharan Africa, there are only about 62 female students for every 100 male students. In South and West Asia, there are 74 women enrolled in tertiary education for every 100 male students. • When educational opportunity and resources are scarce, it seems that women are less likely to get them. (Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, UNESCO, 2010)
Impact of Women in Higher Education • Women face considerable barriers as they move up the education ladder to research careers. • When we look at higher education outputs – the number of graduates produced – the global picture shows a near balance between men and women who obtain Bachelor’s degrees. Then, slightly more women (56%) than men get Master’s degrees. • However, men surpass women in virtually all countries at the highest levels of education, accounting for 56% of all PhD graduates and 71% of researchers. (Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, UNESCO, 2010)
Impact of Women in Higher Education • The growth in female enrollment partly reflects the changing values and attitudes related to the role and aspirations of women in society that are the legacy of social change and feminist movements which emerged globally in the 1960s and 1970s. • Female over-representation in higher education is not reflected in the labor market. (Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, UNESCO, 2010)
Impact of Women in Higher Education • Studies by the OECD and other organizations have shown that women are not on equal footing with men in terms of salaries and decision-making positions, despite having the same or better qualifications in terms of education. (Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, UNESCO, 2010)
Women in Higher Education • Women's Colleges • THE TREND: • closings and controversial shifts to coeducation • The number of women's colleges in the U.S. dropped from more than 200 in 1960 to 83 in 1993, according to a U.S. Department of Education report. Today, the Women's College Coalition lists 47 member colleges. • According to the National Center for Education Statistics, collective national enrollment at women's colleges fell from about 113,000 in 1998 to 86,000 in 2010.
Women in Higher Education • Women's Colleges • Started in the mid-19th century, women's colleges in the U.S. opened to level the educational playing field for women who couldn't otherwise get a college education. • Recent Census figures show that more women have undergraduate and advanced degrees than men. • By 1982, women earned the majority of bachelor’s degrees and by 1986 the majority of master’s degrees.
Women in Higher Education • Women’s Colleges • Women continue to remain underrepresented in key leadership positions and the STEM fields: Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics. • Even though women have been the majority on college campuses for more than two decades, they are underrepresented on coed campuses in such leadership positions as the student government association, preferring to do other student activities.
Women in Higher Education • Women's Colleges • High expectations, support, presence of role models, critical mass of high achieving students, opportunities for extracurricular involvement, inclusion of women in the curriculum, and a recognition of the social realities facing women in the “real world,” are all traits associated with institutions that facilitate the success of their women students.
Women in Higher Education • Current Struggles/Issues • Legal Battles • Achievement: • In 1995, the U.S. Supreme Court declared the school's male-only admissions policy unconstitutional, and the South Carolina woman was allowed to enroll.
Current Struggles/Issues • Story: • The first female cadet at the Citadel, South Carolina's elite all-male military college, Shannon Faulkner, fought a legal battle against the Citadel for two years before allowed to enroll. • Link to Shannon Faulkner’s Story: • Click Here
Current Struggles/Issues • Other Points of Interest • Family versus Career • Women are supposed to balance family and their career • Peer Pressures • Social norms • Institutional Barriers • Regional Difference • Women’s Intertwined Identities
Native Americans in Higher Education • Native Americans have the lowest participation and graduation rates today of any group of students in the United States (U.S. Department of Education). • History provides clues: Posters such as the one below can be found on numerous public blogs and websites, demonstrating a continuing mistrust of the U.S. education system and curriculum. Retrieved from http://espressostalinist.wordpress.com/genocide/native-american-genocide/
Native Americans in Higher Education • Pre-Colonial Self-Determination Period (before 1492) • parents and elders passed along tribal language, values, customs, stories, religion, etc., to next generation
Native Americans in Higher Education • Colonial Period (1492-1776) • “Indian Colleges” • Locations: (Thelin, 2011, McClellan, Fox, & Lowe, 2005) • Harvard • William & Mary • Dartmouth • Purpose: (Thelin, 2011) • civilize • convert natives to Christianity • fundraising tool – wealthy English families more likely to invest in converting “savages” than educating colonists • Outcomes: (McClellan, Fox, & Lowe, 2005) • “failed utterly” (p. 8) • 47 enrollees • 4 graduates Modern photo: William and Mary’s old Indian School Spanish Mission, San Antonio, 1741
Native Americans in Higher Education • Spanish Missions (Lippert, 2012) • Location: West (what is now Texas) • Purpose: • strategic Spanish expansion plan: convert rather than conquer Indians • teach Spanish language, develop loyalties to Spanish King • teaching agriculture to change culture from nomad to settled (easier to monitor) • Outcomes: • mixed • More successful than Indian Colleges, probably because missions where communal by nature • European diseases (small pox, chicken pox, etc.): • Killed large percentage of native population
Native Americans in Higher Education • Early U.S. Indian Relations (1776 -1830) (McClellan, Fox, & Lowe,2005) • Numerous treaties and agreements • More than 99 treaties addressed education for Native Americans • September 1830 • first treaty to address higher education • signed with Choctaw nation • no action or funding, however, until 1841
Native Americans in Higher Education • Removal Era (1830-1850) • Indian Removal Act of 1830 • Mandated removal of all Native Americans east of the Mississippi River to lands in the West • Many Christian missionaries also relocated in order to civilize and convert Native Americans (National Indian Education Association)
Native Americans in Higher Education • Period of Allotment and Assimilation (1880-1920) (American Indian Relief Council) • Christian boarding schools were created to assimilate Native children into American culture by erasing tribal and family relationships, language, customs, and philosophies. • The idea was to replace tribal culture with American values like individualism, capitalism, competition, Christianity, and the value of material possessions. “Kill the Indian in him and save the man,” motto of Col. Richard Henry Pratt, headmaster of Carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania, established 1879. Before and After Photo
Native Americans in Higher Education • Period of Allotment and Assimilation (1880-1920) –cont. “Boarding school survivors have reported shame upon their return because they did not know their own culture or language, nor did they feel welcome in the white community……Confused, lost, and sometimes brainwashed, survivors self-medicated with alcohol and because they were not parented, and they in turn struggled to be good parents. This set in motion a generational trauma” (Bonner, Marbley, & Howard-Hamilton, 2011, p. 159).
Native Americans in Higher Education • Termination Period (1945 -1975) • Termination Policy of 1953 • Purpose: eradicate Native American tribes • terminate trust agreement • cease recognizing tribes and tribal affiliations • urban relocation incentives • sell off trust lands, including those rich in natural resources, to non-natives and businesses • shift federal responsibilities to states
Native Americans in Higher Education • Indian Reorganization Act (1930-1945) • Federally designated funds for Native American Higher Education (United State Department of Education, 2011) “Under the theory that Native American culture and language were inferior and stood in the way of success within white society, forced assimilation was the stated goal of government agencies and the assumed purpose of the mainstream education of Native American youth until the late 1960s” (Mosholder and Goslin, In press.)
Native Americans in Higher Education • Period of Self-Determination (1965 –present) (McClellan, Fox, & Lowe, 2005) • Indian Self Determination and Education Act of 1975 • Tribal Colleges & University (TCU) movement • Community College Assistance Act of 1978 • provided federal operating funds for tribal community colleges • Tribal College Act of 1983 • TCUs gain Morrill Land Grant Status (1994) • opened door for state funding of TCUs • Goal: • preservation and respect for Native languages, cultures, etc. (American Indian Higher Education Consortium) • Good news: • graduation rates similar to rates at non-Tribal community colleges • Challenges: • funding has never equaled amount promised and is lower per student than most state-funded institutions
Native Americans in Higher EducationPeriod of Self-Determination (1965 –present) Source: American Indian Higher Education Consortium. http://www.aihec.org/ Tribal College Locations
Native Americans in Higher Education Today • Current Facts and Figures • 4,500,000 American citizens identify as American Indian, Alaskan Native, or Native Hawaiian (National Indian Education Association & National Education Association). • These people make up 562 distinct tribes (National Indian Education Association & National Education Association). • Educational Disparities • Only 71% of Native Americans have a high school diploma, and only 11% have a bachelor’s degree (National Indian Education Association & National Education Association). • Native Americans have the lowest level of degree attainment of all major ethnic groups in the United States (American Indian Higher Education Consortium, Institute for Higher Education Policy ).
Native Americans in Higher Education Today • Social & Economic Disparities • Native American Reservations suffer from high rates of unemployment • A large gap exists between the average per capita income of Native Americans and the average per capita income of the general population • High rates of suicide, alcohol related deaths, and single parent households • Many reservations are geographically isolated from educational opportunities
Native Americans in Higher Education Today • Tribally Controlled Colleges & Universities • Grew out of the self-determination movement of the 1960’s • Navajo Nation founded the first tribally controlled college in 1968 - presently Dine College • Today, 37 institutions exist offering certificates, associates, bachelors, and masters degrees • Tribally Controlled Community Colleges Assistance Act of 1978
Native Americans in Higher Education Today • Missions of Tribally Controlled Colleges & Universities • #1 Rebuild, reinforce, and explore traditional tribal cultures using uniquely designed curricula and institutional settings • #2 Address Western models of learning by providing traditional disciplinary courses that are transferable to institutions
Native Americans in Higher Education Today • Tribally Controlled Colleges and Universities (TCCU) Effects on Communities • Preservation of traditional Native American Culture and languages • Provide substance abuse counseling, nutritional counseling, child care, and other support services • Establish basic education, counseling, and economic development initiatives to surrounding community
Native Americans in Higher Education Today • Difficulties Faced by TCCU’s • Difficulty recruiting and retaining faculty due to rural isolation, low teacher salaries, high poverty areas, and differences in language and culture • Difficulty finding Native American faculty and staff due to lack of college educated population • Lack of resources to fund building facilities, hiring educators and administrators, and providing aid to students
Native Americans in Higher Education Today • Initiatives have been launched to increase the participation of Native American students in Higher Education. Thisvideo highlights an initiative in Arizona.
References • American Indian Higher Education Consortium, Institute for Higher Education Policy (n.d.). Tribal colleges: An introduction. Retrieved from http://www.aihec.org/colleges/documents/TCU_intro.pdf • Ash, L. & Boyd, A. (2012, August 17). Women's colleges struggle to keep identity and enrollment. USA Today. Retrieved from • http://www.usatoday.com/news/education/story/2012-08-01/womens-colleges-enrollment/57103700/1 • Chang, J, Sinay, L & Clarke, S. (2009, December 8). Life after the Citadel: Shannon • Faulkner reflects on her historic battle with the Elite Military College. • ABC News. Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/shannon- • Faulkner-reflects-citadel/story?id=9272864#.UF84nEI9Xdl • Cohen, A. M., & Kisker, C. (2010). The shaping of American higher education emergence and growth of the contemporary system (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
References - Continued Fox, M., Lowe, S. C., & McClellan, G. S. (2005). Where we have been: A history of Native American higher education. New Directions for Student Services, 2005(109), 7-15. Lippert, J. (2012). Harvesting souls. Native Peoples Magazine, 25(2), 50. McClellan, G. S., Tippeconnic Fox, M., & Lowe, S. C. (2005). Where we have been: A history of Native American higher education. New Directions For Student Services, (109), 7-15. Mosholder, R. & Goslin, C (In press). Native American college student persistence. Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory & Practice
References - Continued National Indian Education Association & National Education Association (n.d.). Native education 101: Basic facts about American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian education. (0907.82937.KC). Washington DC: NEA. Retrieved from www.niea.org/data/files/policy/nativeeducation101.pdf National Institute on Postsecondary Education, Libraries, and Lifelong Learning, Office of Educational Research and Improvement (n.d.). A closer look at women's colleges. Retrieved from http://www2.ed.gov/PDFDocs/womenscolleges.pdf Thelin, J. (2011). A history of American higher education (2nd ed.). Baltimore, MD: The John Hopkins University Press.
References - Continued • United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. (n.d.). Global education digest 2010: Comparing education statistics across the world. • Retrieved from http://www.uis.unesco.org/Library/Documents/GED • _2010_EN.pdf • United State Department of Education, Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Office of Indian Education, &White House Initiative on Tribal Colleges and Universities. (2011). Tribal leaders speak: The state of Indian Education 2010; Report of the consultations with tribal leaders in Indian country. Retrieved from http://www2.ed.gov/about/inits/ed/indianed/consultations-report.pdf • United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2010). Status and trends in the education of racial and ethnic minorities (NCES 2010-015). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved from www.NCES.ed.gov/pubs2010/2010015/index.asp
References - Continued Women’s education, women’s empowerment. (2012, September 21). Women’s History 2012 Gazette: A Gazette from the National Women’s History Project: Retrieved from http://www.nwhp.org/final-2(2).pdf