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Applications of Accelerators

Applications of Accelerators

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Applications of Accelerators

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  1. Applications of Accelerators Philip Burrows John Adams Institute for Accelerator Science Oxford University 1

  2. Lecture 2 outline • Application of accelerators for fundamental discoveries • A bit of history • Colliders • Large Hadron Collider • After the Large Hadron Collider 2

  3. Scientific importance of accelerators • 30% of physics Nobel Prizes • awarded for work based • on accelerators • Increasing number of non-physics • Nobel Prizes being awarded • for work reliant on accelerators! 3

  4. Accelerator-related Physics Nobel Prizes • 1901 Roentgen: X rays • 1905 Lenard: cathode rays • 1906 JJ Thomson: electron • 1914 von Laue: X-ray diffraction • 1915 WH+WL Bragg: X-ray crystallography • 1925 Franck, Hertz: laws of impact of e on atoms • 1927 Compton: X-ray scattering • 1937 Davisson, Germer: diffraction of electrons • 1939 Lawrence: cyclotron 4

  5. Accelerator-related Physics Nobel Prizes • 1943 Stern: magnetic moment of proton • 1951 Cockcroft, Walton: artificial acceleration • 1959 Segre, Chamberlain: antiproton discovery • 1961 Hofstadter: structure of nucleons • 1968 Alvarez: discovery of particle resonances • 1969 Gell-Mann: classification of el. particles • 1976 Richter, Ting: charmed quark • 1979 Glashow, Salam, Weinberg: Standard Model • 1980 Cronin, Fitch: symmetry violation in kaons 5

  6. Accelerator-related Physics Nobel Prizes • 1984 Rubbia, van der Meer: W + Z particles • 1986 Ruska: electron microscope • 1988 Ledermann, Schwartz, Steinerger: mu nu • 1990 Friedmann, Kendall, Taylor: quarks • 1992 Charpak: multi-wire proportional chamber • 1994 Brockhouse, Shull: neutron scattering • 1995 Perl: tau lepton discovery • 2004 Gross, Pollitzer, Wilczek: asymptotic freedom • 2008 Nambu, Kobayashi, Maskawa: broken symm. 6

  7. Particle Physics Periodic Table

  8. Particle Physics Periodic Table

  9. Composition of the universe 9

  10. Dark Matter 10

  11. Composition of the universe 11

  12. Dark Energy 12

  13. Recreating conditions of early universe Big Bang now Older ….. larger … colder ….less energetic 13

  14. Telescopes to the early universe Big Bang now Older ….. larger … colder ….less energetic 14

  15. Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Best window we have on matter in the universe, at ultra-early times and at ultra-small scales 15

  16. Interesting speculations All eyes on collider as it comes to life Will atom smasher signal end of the world? Le LHC, un succès européen à célébrer Large Hadron Collider e International Linear Collider a caccia del bosone di Higgs Wir stoßen die Tür zum dunklen Universum auf 16

  17. 17

  18. For physics studies see • Heavy ion physics (Barbara Jacak) • Standard Model (Harald Fritzsch) • The LHC and the Standard Model (Albert de Roeck) • Beyond the Standard Model (John Ellis) • CP violation (Yosef Nir) • Detectors (Emmanuel Tsesmelis) 18

  19. Accelerators • Want to see what matter is made of • Smash matter apart and look for the building blocks • Take small pieces of matter: • accelerate them to very high energy • crash them into one another • LHC: protons crashing into protons head-on 19

  20. High energy is critical • Size of structure we can probe with a collider like LHC • = h / p(de Broglie, 1924) • h = Planck’s constant = 6.63 x 10**-34 Js • p = momentum of protons • The larger the momentum (energy), the smaller the size • LHC exploring structure of matter at 10**20 m scale 20

  21. Why build colliders? 21

  22. Why build colliders? 60 mph stationary 22

  23. Why build colliders? 60 mph stationary 30 mph 30 mph 23

  24. Why build colliders? For speeds well below light speed: same damage! 60 mph stationary 30 mph 30 mph 24

  25. Why build colliders? 25

  26. Why build colliders? • Now try this with protons moving near light speed stationary 26

  27. Why build colliders? • Now try this with protons moving near light speed stationary 27

  28. Why build colliders? For the same physics, 14,000 times the energy of each proton in the LHC stationary 28

  29. Why colliders? Most of the energy goes into carrying the momentum forward 29

  30. Why colliders? All the energy available for smashing up the protons 30

  31. Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Largest, highest-energy particle accelerator CERN, Geneva 31

  32. The fastest racetrack on the planet The protons will reach 99.9999991% speed of light, and go round the 27km ring 11,000 times per second 32

  33. The coldest places in the galaxy The LHC operates at -271 C (1.9K), colder than outer space. A total of 36,800 tonnes are cooled to this temperature. The largest refrigerator ever 33

  34. The emptiest vacuum in the solar system Ten times more atmosphere on the Moon than inside LHC beam pipes 34

  35. The hottest spots in the galaxy When the two beams of protons collide, they will generate temperatures 1000 million times hotter than the heart of the sun, but in a minuscule space 35

  36. LHC Beams • Each beam contains 3000 ‘bunches’ of protons • Each bunch contains 200 billion protons 36

  37. Stored Beam Energy 37

  38. Stored Beam Energy Equivalents 38

  39. Machine Protection System 39

  40. LHC Magnets • 27km tunnel is 50 – 150 m below ground • Two beams of protons circulating in opposite directions • Beams controlled by 1800 superconducting magnets, dipoles are of field strength about 8 Tesla 40

  41. Stored Magnet Energy 41

  42. LHC dipole magnets 42

  43. When Magnet Energy Escapes 43

  44. Dipole removal from tunnel 44

  45. Dipole repair on surface 45

  46. Last repaired dipole descending 46

  47. Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Back on November 20th 2009 47

  48. At last! 48

  49. Highest energy subatomic collisions 49

  50. Highest energy nuclear collisions 50