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“one in three young women will have been pregnant at least once by the time she is twenty” PowerPoint Presentation
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“one in three young women will have been pregnant at least once by the time she is twenty”

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“one in three young women will have been pregnant at least once by the time she is twenty”

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“one in three young women will have been pregnant at least once by the time she is twenty”

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  1. “one in three young women will have been pregnant at least once by the time she is twenty” www.teenpregnancy.org

  2. “A village would be nice but it takes long-acting contraception” TEENS, PREGNANCY, BIRTHS AND PREVENTION Dyan Aretakis, UVA Teen Health Center

  3. Births to 15-17 year olds in the United States

  4. Teen Birth Decline in Virginia • The 30% decline in births to girls ages 15-19 produces estimates that: • There has been a 5% improvement in the states poverty rate for children under age six • A 5% improvement in the proportion of children under age six living with a single mother. • Accomplished by reducing the teen birth total by 24,000 from 1991 - 2002 www.teenpregnancy.org/whycare/whatif.asp

  5. 15–17 yo birth rates increase in 2006 Birth rates for white, black and hispanic teens all increased from 2005-2006; 3%, 5%, 2% respectively, the first increase in 15 years

  6. Issues preceeding a teen pregnancy • Early-maturing girls • Childhood sexual abuse (65% of teen moms) • Dating violence (8 – 57%) • School issues • High rates of sexually transmitted diseases • Mental health issues • Poverty

  7. What are the risks in teen births? • Preterm birth – less than 37 weeks • Youngest age; biology or SES? • Especially if close to menarche • Unmarried/unplanned • Low birth weight • Preeclampsia • Neonatal mortality (Preterm birth/low birth weight) and postneonatal mortality (disadvantaged infant environment) • Postpartum depression – 50% • Child Abuse • Child growth and development • Economic • Family • Rapid repeat pregnancy • Intimate Partner Violence (20%)

  8. Socioeconomic status or being a teen? Controlling for socioeconomic conditions eliminates some differences in LBW among teens and older moms It is access to care or just being a teen? Teens more prone to delaying care and then AFFORDING care

  9. Impact of teen births • School Readiness • Family • Mental health

  10. School readiness – children of teen parents • ECLS – K • Looks at these measures: • Cognition and knowledge • Language and communication • Approaches to learning • Emotional well-being and social skills • Physical well-being and motor development • Playing Catch-up: How Children born to teen mothers fare, www.teenpregnancy.org, 2005

  11. School readiness – children of teen parents • Children born to teen mothers begin kindergarten with lower levels of school readiness • Differences seen especially in cognition, knowledge and language development • Children of mothers who are 18 or 19 are not any better prepared • Children of mothers in their 20’s and older fare the best

  12. School readiness – children born to teen mothers • Delaying a pregnancy until a young woman is in her 20’s helps her establish education, employment, marriage • However simply delaying a pregnancy until a young woman is 20 is not enough • She must make progress in her own life economically and educationally to parent successfully

  13. Family effects – children born to teen mothers • 80% of teen mothers live at home one year after giving birth • Mothers of teen moms found to be less affectionate and more critical of all their children after a teen birth in the household. • 59% of teen mothers under age 18 drop out of high school • Younger siblings learn negative behavior by modeling their older siblings (who are teen parents) • Younger siblings have more negative attitudes toward school and careers following their older siblings • Younger girl siblings affected, boy siblings not

  14. Mental Health Issues • Teen moms twice as likely to have depression compared with adults moms • African American teens twice as likely as white teen moms • Often also a history of intimate partner violence • Teen mom depression increases risk of child abuse/neglect; interpersonal conflict; adverse effects on childs intellectual development and psychosocial functioning

  15. Mental Health Issues in teen births • Treating teen moms depression is better for the child • Trying to find services for teens is depressing esp with additional mental health diagnoses • Risk of repeat pregnancy within 24 months is 40% higher than nondepressed teen moms • Teen depression underdetected and inadequately treated, explained away as “teen behavior”

  16. Preventing the Risks of Teen Births • Routine health care and early prenatal care • Identify other health risks including type II diabetes, sexually transmitted diseases, abnormal pap smears, anemia’s, asthma, eating disorders, sexual violence/IPV • Emphasis is on prenatal care before the 7th month • Saves $2300/infant when LBW avoided. • Age appropriate care with emphasis on pregnancy/parenting education. Include home visiting, mental health treatment and school based programs. • Prevent 2nd pregnancy through long acting contraception

  17. A village would be nice..... • Schools with childcare • Faith communities • Affordable/accessible health care providers • Pre-K programs • Mental health services • Free Child care • Job training • Stable and supportive family environment

  18. Or you can….. Postpone a first pregnancy through long acting contraception