Sky By OceanAire
Outline • Mission Statement and Assumptions • Business Plan • Concepts of Operations • Requirements • Technologies and Advance Concepts • Initial Sizing
Mission Statement • Design an aircraft with supersonic capabilities that is able to link major business city pairs. • Compete with other existing aircraft on the market.
Assumptions • For this design we will assume first flight in 2020 and entry in service in 2023. • This will allow us to consider the integration of technologies under development and have a more competitive product. • We assume that no supersonic flight over land is permitted. • This allows us the reduce the risks taken by launching an aircraft designed to fly overland if the regulations of prohibited supersonic operations don't change.
Business Plan: Customer Needs and Benefits • Decrease travel time by at least half • Fly farther non-stop • Luxurious cabin space
Business Plan: Primary Customer • Business oriented travelers • Traveler with the desire and means to reach their destination faster
Business Plan: Market Size • According to Richard Branson, founder and President of Virgin Atlantic, “There clearly is a demand for a niche for an all-business-class offering” • Eos, MAXjet, Silverjet, and l’Avion reported in 2007 that each filled 70% or more of their seats flying only transatlantic flights.
By the year 2020, many companies will be developing or already have developed supersonic transports Business Plan: Market Competition Company Name # of PAX Range (nmi) Cruise Speed (Mach #) Over Land Aerion Corporation SBJ 8 to 12 >4000 1.6 Yes Lockheed QSST up to 12 >4000 1.6 to 1.8 Yes Dassault Aviation 8 to 16 3000-4900 1.8 Yes HISAC Sukhoi S-21 6 to 10 2400 1.4 N/A 49 5000 1.8 No OceanAire Sky • Table 1. 2020 Market Analysis
Business Plan: Market Competition • Our aircraft’s strengths are passenger capacity (49), range capability (5000 nmi), and supersonic cruise speed (1.8). Our weakness is that our plane will not be designed for transcontinental flights. • Per FAR36, supersonic overland flight in the USA as well as over 50 other countries has been prohibited. Our competition rely on this regulation to be redefined or using new technological advances to mitigate the sonic boom level.
Business Plan: Cost Predictions • Table 2. Cost Predictions • Analysis based on Aircraft Airframe Cost Model, using planes that are in production as skeleton models.
Business Plan: Operations • A total of 15 city pairs and 13 global locations Airport Code Airport Code Distance (nmi) Airport Code Airport Code Distance (nmi) NYC to London JFK LHR 2999 LA to Tokyo LAX NRT 4737 NYC to Paris JFK CDG 3158 SF to Tokyo SFO NRT 4462 NYC to Amsterdam JFK AMS 3166 SF to Seoul SFO ICN 4927 Boston to London BOS LHR 2837 Seattle to Tokyo SEA NRT 4144 Boston to Paris BOS CDG 2997 Seattle to Seoul SEA ICN 4533 Boston to Amsterdam BOS AMS 3004 Tokyo to Singapore NRT SIN >4211 Miami to London MIA LHR 3845 Tokyo to Sydney NRT SYD 2889 Miami to Paris MIA CDG 3987 • Table 3. Transpacific City Pairs • Table 4. Transatlantic City Pairs Up until today, supersonicoverland flight in the United States as well as in over 50 countries has been prohibited. Many projects worldwide, like HISAC, strive at on one hand mitigating the sonic boom level through different technical means, and on the other hand, defining what could be the acceptable level of sonic boom for overflown population.
Out of all the city pairs, the most passengers are in the 2500 - 3000 nmi range with about 68,800 passengers/week for 2008. Business Plan: Operations • Figure 1. Passengers Per Week for Chosen City Pairs • In this range the busiest city pair is London (LHR) to New York (JFK) with about 23,400 passengers a week. Up until today, supersonicoverland flight in the United States as well as in over 50 countries has been prohibited. Many projects worldwide, like HISAC, strive at on one hand mitigating the sonic boom level through different technical means, and on the other hand, defining what could be the acceptable level of sonic boom for overflown population.
Customers needs • Luxurious cabin space • 1st Class Seat Pitch = 60” • Business Class Seat Pitch = 50” • (these configurations are subject to change) • Luxurious entertainment and communication capabilities for improved productivity during flight • Shorter travel time = 60”
Aircraft Payload / Passenger Capacity: • Spacing Efficiency • Optimizing passenger capacities within designated aircraft spacing to enable maximum profit. • To allow effective use of space without inhibiting the comfort of passengers. • To maximize profit by avoiding needless use of space. • Enhance Flight Efficiency • Through optimization of the aircraft payload by avoiding unnecessary payloads (limiting passenger checking baggage to 1x50 lbs since majority of passengers are business oriented and statistically, they do not carry a lot of luggage)
Aircraft Payload / Passenger Capacity: • 4 Crew Members 180 lbs/crew Baggage 30 lbs/crew • 49 Passengers 180 lbs/passenger Baggage 50 lbs/passenger On Board Baggage 15 lbs/passenger X 4 X 49 W = 12005 lbs W = 840 lbs payload crew
Cabin Layout First Class Seat pitch 60” Seat width 30” Aisle width 30” Business Class Seat pitch 50” Seat width 24” Aisle width 20” Figure 2. Cabin Layout
Aircraft Design Mission Profile Based on the longest flight of the aircraft in worst case scenario. Follows FAA part 25 regulations for transport aircraft with 2 engines or more. Includes emergency maneuvers such as take off or go around with one inoperative engine. All supersonic legs of the flights are over sea.
Design Mission Profile H G I J F N O E K M P D L Q R C A-B • A Taxi (9min)B Accelerate to VLO ≥ 1.1∙VS and liftoff with one engine inoperativeC Take off to 35ft at VTO ≥ 1.2 ∙ VS with one engine inoperative, gears down at a rate ≥ 2.4%.D Climb to 1,500ft at VCL ≥ 1.25 ∙ VS with one engine inoperative, gears up at a rate ≥ 1.2%E Climb to 10,000 ft at 250 KCAS with all engines operating, gears up at a rate >3%F Accelerate to climb speedG Climb to best cruise altitude at best climb rateH Step cruise for best range (4,919 nmi with head winds) at M = 1.8
Design Mission Profile H G I J F N O E K M P • I Descend to 10,000 ftJ Decelerate to 250 KCASK Descend to 1,500 ft and loiter for 30 minL Approach at VA≥ 1.3 ∙ Vs • M Missed approach, climb at VCL ≤ 1.5 ∙ Vs at a rate ≥ 2.1% with one engine inoperative, gears up OR • Missed landing, climb at VCL ≤ 1.3 ∙ Vs at a rate ≥ 3.2% with all engines operating, gears down) N Cruise for best range (200 nmi alternate airport) with one engine inoperative O Loiter (30 min) P Descend to 1,500 ft • Q Approach at VA≥ 1.3 ∙ Vs • R Land over a 50ft obstacle at VTD≥ 1.15 ∙ Vs D L Q R C A-B
Economic Mission Profile • Based on the most flown flight • Follows FAA part 25 regulations for transport aircraft climb rates • Does NOT include emergency maneuvers • All supersonic legs of the flights are over sea.
Economic Mission Profile H G I J F E K D L N M C A-B • A Taxi (9min) • B Accelerate to VLO≥ 1.1 ∙ VS and liftoff with all engines operatingC Take off to 35ft at VTO≥ 1.1 ∙ Vs with all engine operating, gear down at a rate > 0%D Climb to 1,500ft at VCL≥ 1.2 ∙ Vs with all engines operating, gear up at a rate > 3%E Climb to 10,000 ft at 250 KCAS with all engines operating, gear up at a rate > 3%F Accelerate to climb speedG Climb to best cruise altitude at best climb rateH Step cruise for best range • H Step cruise for best range (3,000 nmi)I Descend to 10,000ftJ Decelerate to 250 KCASK Descend to 1,500ftL 30 min loiter at 1,500ftM Approach at VA≥ 1.3 ∙ VsN Land over a 50ft obstacle at VTD≥ 1.15 ∙ VsO Taxi to gate (9 min)
Economic Mission Profile Purdue University is an Equal Opportunity/Equal Access institution.
Economic Mission Profile Purdue University is an Equal Opportunity/Equal Access institution.
Customer Needs/Wants Table 5. Customer Attributes
Quantifiable Engineering Characteristics • Takeoff field length • Landing field length • Door height above ground • Airframe life • Range • Number of passengers • Cruise Mach number • Cabin volume per passenger • Operating cost • Cruise altitude • Cruise efficiency • Cumulative certification noise • Stall speed • Wing span • NOx emissions
House of Quality • Most Important Attributes: 1. FAA Requirements 2. Supersonic Cruise Efficiency 3. Airport Compatible • Top Engineering Characteristics: 1. Cruise Mach Number 2. Cruise efficiency
Targets/Thresholds Requirements Compliance Matrix Table 6. Requirements Compliance Matrix
Benchmarking • Major Competitors: • Aerospatiale/BAC Concorde • Lockheed Martin Quiet Supersonic Transport • Aerion Supersonic Business Jet • Benchmarking Outcome: • Focuses • Shortcomings Figure 3. Benchmarking Analysis
Technologies & Advanced Concepts Engines • Commercial: • Pratt and Whitney JT8D-219 Turbofan • 21000 lb takeoff thrust • Military: • Pratt and Whitney F-119 (LM F-22) Twin Spool Augmented Turbofan • 35000 lb thrust • Pratt and Whitney F-135 (LM F-35 JSF) • 40000 lb thrust • Materials • Carbon Fiber Reinforce Plastics (CFRP): • Very strong and lightweight • Tensile strength can reach 820,000 psi • 2024-T3 Al – 70,000 psi • 7075-T6 Al – 83,000 psi • Unlimited lifetime if protected and maintained correctly • Boeing 787: over 50% carbon fiber material • Nanotechnology: • Possibility of much lighter and stronger materials by 2020
Technologies & Advanced Concepts Wing Configurations • Reversed Delta Wing • Natural laminar flow • 2D flow • Nonplanar Wing Configurations: • Reduction in induced drag • Increase in L/D • Canards • Increases stability and lift • Current Industry Configurations • Low AR • Aft-fuselage • Compression Lift • Fuel • Biofuels • Cut down on NOx emissions • Virgin Atlantic 747 flight
Estimates of L/D • Nicolai/Corke L/D Estimates • M < 1: (L/D)max ≈ 1.4 * AR +7.1 • M ≥ 1: (L/D)max ≈ 11*Mc-0.5 • For assumed AR of 2.2 from historical data • M < 1: (L/D)max ≈ 10.2 • AR assumed from Aerion, Concorde, and Tupolev TU-144 • M ≥ 1: (L/D)max ≈ 8.2 • MC = 1.8 due to specifications • Supersonic: (L/D)cruise ≈ 7.1 • Assuming (L/D)cruise ≈ 0.86 (L/D)max
We/W0 Predictor • Altered Prof. Crossley’s Database • We/W0 = bW0c1ARc2(T/W0)c3(W0/S)c4Mmaxc5 • T/W0 = 0.3 • W0/S = 100 • Mmax= 2.0 • We/W0 = 2.808524W0-0.08453959AR0.1377132 (T/W0) 0.1351319 (W0/S) 0.1789255Mmax0.01676361 • We/W0 = 0.413 Table 7. Sizing Database
We/W0 Predictor (cont’d) • MATLAB code for We/W0
We/W0 Predictor (cont’d) Table 8. Empty Weight Fraction
We/W0 Predictor (cont’d) • Technology Used • Composites Used on more than 50% of plane • We/W0,comp = 0.95*We/W0 • 2 Engine configuration • Reduces Weight, SS cruise without afterburner by 2020 • Compared to Concorde’s 4 engine configuration
Future Sizing • FLOPS • NASA Langley Code • Very specific inputs and outputs • Not worth using yet • Too many inputs would be taken from old aircraft • Certain info needed that is difficult to look up from old A/C, i.e. hard to make accurate guesses
Summary • Luxurious, comfortable, and affordable. • First and business class customers for optimal profit. • 15 transatlantic and transpacific city pairs. • Reasonable empty weight fraction from initial sizing. • Design focuses: cruise Mach number and cruise efficiency.
Next Steps • Second phase of sizing and design. • Utilization of FLOPS • Assess different airplane configurations. • Trade studies, concept generation, concept selection. • Selection of propulsion system. • Further investigation of advanced technologies.
References • Seating Charts (Pitch and Width for Business and First on all airlines) http://www.seatguru.com/charts/business_class.php • Airport database (runway lengths, codes, locations...) http://www.world-airport-codes.com/ • Market Size http://travel.nytimes.com/2007/07/24/business/24premium.html • Seat Pitch http://www.aerospaceweb.org/question/planes/seating/seat-pitch.jpg • NASA Dryden fact sheet for Tu-144 http://www.nasa.gov/centers/dryden/news/FactSheets/FS-062-DFRC.html • Aerion Corp-Aerion data http://www.aerioncorp.com/technology • USAF XB-70 Factsheet • F-14D data http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/aircraft/f-14-specs.htmM.A.T.Shttp://www.anft.net/f-14/f14-specification.htm