I. India • Geography-Located in southern Asia, India is a triangular shaped subcontinent. 1. Subcontinent-A large distinguishable part of a continent
2. Due to the geographicdiversity of India, over 110 languages are spoken in India.
3. HimalayaMountains-Located in the north of India, they are the highest mountains in the world.
4. DeccanPlateau-Extends from the Ganges Valley to the southern tip of India.
5. Monsoons-Seasonal winds that carry heavy rainfall across the subcontinent
a) Wet Winds-During the summer, monsoons from the south and southwest blow significant rains to the west coast near Mumbai. Farmers rely on these winds.
b) Dry Winds-During the cooler season, from October through February, the wind pattern reverses direction and drives rain north and northeast. This air is cooler and drier, but still brings rains to the east coast of India.
II. Civilization A. Indus River Valley-From 3000 B.C.E.-1500 B.C.E., this river valley gave life to civilization in India.
1. Two cities, Harappa and MohenjoDaro, developed approximately 400 miles from one another.
2. Public wells provided a regular supply of water for all inhabitants. Bathrooms featured an advanced drainage system. Wastewater followed out to drains located under the streets. Public bath
3. The economy was based on farming. The Indus flooded ever year, providing rich soil to grow wheat, barley, and peas. Also, trade took place across the Indus to as far as Mesopotamia. Sumerian textiles and food were traded for Indus copper, precious stones, and cotton.
4. Arrival of the Aryans-Around 2000 B.C.E.-a group of Indo-European-speaking nomadic peoples began to move out of the steppes of central Asia, including the Aryans. They traveled across the Hindu Kush mountain range into the plains of northern India.
a) Around 1000 B.C.E. they started writing in Sanskrit, an Indo-European language.
b) Gender Roles in India-Women were dominated by men. 1) Suttee-Required a wife to throw herself on her dead husband’s flaming funeral pyre.
What factors of civilization were present in the first civilization of India? What was the name of the first civilization in India? What are monsoons? What are the two types of monsoons in India? India What is the mountain range in northern India? What impact have they had on Indian history? Define-Subcontinent- What language did the Aryans bring with them to India?
III. Hinduism A. Its origins are from the beliefs of the Aryan people.
B. Evidence about the religious beliefs of the Aryans come from the Vedas, collections of hymns and religious ceremonies that were passed down orally and eventually written down.
C. Caste System-Hindus believed in a rigid class structure known as the caste system. They believed that society was broken up into four varnas or social groups, which determined occupation.
Brahmins-Priestly class • Kshatriyas-Warriors • Vaisyas-Commoners (i.e., merchants and farmers) • Sudras-Peasants or servants who made up the bulk of the Indian population
5. Untouchables-Trash collectors and handled dead bodies. Seen to be outside the caste system.
D. Polytheistic-Hindus believe in many Gods. They worship these gods in temple.
E. Reincarnation-Hindus believe that the individual soul is reborn in a different form after death. 1. Karma-Force generated by a person’s actions that determined how the person will be reborn in the next life.
2. Dharma (divine law)-Requires people to do their duty. More is expected of a higher caste.
Checkpoint • Describe three beliefs of Hinduism? • What is the most holy river in Hinduism? Why? • What is the caste system? What does it determine specifically?
IV. Buddhism • In the 6th century B.C.E., Buddhism appeared in northern India. 1. Founder-Siddhartha Gautama (or simply, Buddha)
a) Gautama was the heir to the throne in northern India, when he became aware of the hardships of ordinary people.
b) Gautama spent his time meditating, until one day he reached spiritual enlightenment and founded Buddhism. 1) Nirvana-All Buddhists strive to reach nirvana. Nirvana is best described as spiritual enlightenment.
B. The Four Noble Truths 1. Life is full of pain and suffering 2. The cause of suffering is human desire 3. The way to end suffering is to end desire 4. The way to end desire is to follow the Eightfold Path
C. Buddhists reject the caste system and the multitude of gods identified with Hinduism. Many see Buddhism as a philosophy rather than a religion.
D. Buddhists accept reincarnation and believe in Dharma and Karma. Eightfold Path 1. Know that suffering is caused by desire. 2. Be selfless and love all life. 3. Do not lie, or speak without cause. 4. Do not kill, steal, or commit other unrighteous acts. 5. Do not do things which promote evil. 6. Take effort to promote righteousness. 7. Be aware of your physical actions, state of mind, and emotions. 8. Learn to meditate.
E. Stupas-Gautama told his followers to place relics (stupas) at different sites. He folded his robe into a cube and placed his begging bowl upside down on top to indicate the shape of such monuments. Indian Stupa established by Asoka Oldest stupa in existence
Stupa in Japan Stupa in China 1) These stupashave spread to China and Japan. This is evidence of cultural diffusion.
II. Empires in India • The Mauryan Empire-The first Indian empire, located in northern India at modern Patna. 1. Kingdom flourished during Asoka’s rule. After his conversion to Buddhism, Asoka used Buddhist ideals to guide his rule.
a) Edicts of Asoka-Scattered edicts in more than 30 places in Nepal, India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan.
1) Buddhist principles dominated his laws 2) Pillars of Asoka-Asoka constructed stupasthat displayed his law system.
b) Trade-Asoka’s kingdom prospered as India’s role in regional commerce expanded. India became a major crossroads in a trade network that extended from the rim of the Pacific to Southwest Asia and the Mediterranean Sea.
1) Buddhism was spread through missionaries and extensive trade routes in Asia.
B. The Gupta Empire-Golden age in India 1. Both Buddhism and Hinduism flourished in India. Gupta temple to Vishnu
3. Mathematics-During the Gupta Empire, Aryabhata, was one of the first to have used algebra. a) During the Gupta reign, Indian mathematicians introduced the concept of zero.
Review Timeline 250 B.C.E.-Height of Asoka’s power 483 B.C.E.-Siddhartha Gautama died 320 C.E.-Gupta Empire created 500 C.E.-Caves at Ajanta created 3000 B.C.E.-Indus River Valley civilization founded 600 C.E.-Gupta Empire collapsed 183 B.C.E.-Mauryan Empire collapsed 2000 B.C.E.-Invasion of the Aryans