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Common Types of Woven Fabric

Common Types of Woven Fabric

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Common Types of Woven Fabric

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  1. Common Types of Woven Fabric

  2. Basic weave structures

  3. Woven Structure

  4. Orientations in a Woven Fabric • Machine direction = "warp" or "end" • Perpendicular direction = "fill" or "weft" or "pick" or "woof” • Frequently the warp direction corresponds with the 0°, or longitudinal direction • And fill with the 90° or transverse direction • However - this is not necessarily the case and should be carefully noted.

  5. Woven Fabrics • Generally characterized by two sets of perpendicular yarns systems • One set is raised and lowered to make “sheds” (these are warp yarns) • The other set is passed through these sheds, perpendicular to the warp yarns (these are fill, or pick or weft yarns)

  6. Woven Fabrics • The structure of the woven fabric is the pattern of interlacing between the warp and weft yarns • Yarns can “float”, or not interlace for some distance within a woven fabric

  7. Crimp in Weaves • The crimp is defined as one less than the ratio of the yarn's actual length to the length of fabric it traverses. • Crimp levels influence fiber volume fraction, thickness of fabric, and mechanical performance of fabric. • High crimp leads to • Reduced tensile and compressive properties • Increased shear modulus in the dry fabric and the resulting composite • Fewer regions for localized delamination between individual yarns.

  8. Crimp • Crimp is defined as the ratio of excess length of yarn in a fabric to the length of the fabric • C = ly/ lf - 1 lf ly

  9. Crimp • Crimp is determined by the texture of the weave and the yarn size • Generally, in weaving, the warp yarns have most of the crimp, the fill very little • This is a direct result of the warp yarns lifting during weaving and the filling yarn being inserted along a straight path

  10. Crimp • Various models of crimp exist, the most rigorous developed by Pierce in the 1930s.

  11. Crimp • pi = (lj– D qj) cos qj + D sin qj • hi = (li – D qi)sin qi + D(1 - cos qi) • ci= (li/pj) - 1 • h1 + h2 = d1 + d2 = D • Where pi =Thread spacing; li = Modular length; ci = Yarn crimp; di = Yarn diameter; hi = Modular height; qi = Weave angle D = Scale factor; sum of warp and weft diameters • i,j = warp and weft directions.

  12. Crimp • Simplified crimp calculations: assume triangle wave shape • tan q = (tf + tw) pf • C= 1/cos q - 1 q tf + tw pf

  13. Crimp

  14. Thickness • Thickness is a difficult parameter to measure. • Thickness is dependent on applied transverse pressure to the fabric • Predictions of thickness show variation throughout the unit cell

  15. Thickness

  16. Theoretical Predictions of Thickness • Consider yarns to be ellipses with major axes ai and minor axes bi. • Thickness is between • 4bw + 2bf ≤ t ≤ 2bw + 2bf

  17. Theoretical Predictions of Thickness

  18. Areal Density • Areal density is a measure of the weight per unit area of the fabric • Usually expressed in g/m2 or oz/yd2. • Areal density is a more reliable experimental metric for fabrics than thickness • Areal density can be correlated to volume fraction

  19. Areal Density • Areal density can be calculated as • A = [l (1+Cw) nw Lw + w (1+Cf) nf Lf]/(w l) • Where Ci = crimp of the i yarn, ni = number of i yarns per unit length, Li = linear density of the i yarn, w = width, l = length, and I=warp or weft.

  20. Areal Density

  21. Woven Structures 3D Woven Twill Double Cloth Satin

  22. Mechanical behavior: The Effect of Yarn Crimp Plain weave Intro to composites, Hull & Clyne

  23. Mechanical behavior: The Effect of Yarn Crimp Angle Interlock weave T. Norman et al. FiberTex ‘92

  24. Mechanical behavior: The Effect of Yarn Crimp XYZ orthogonal weave

  25. 3D Weaves Layer-to-layer Through thickness XYZ

  26. Doubly Stiffened Woven Panel

  27. Variations in Weave Design • If large yarns are used in the warp direction and small yarns are infrequently spaced in the weft direction, the resulting fabric resembles a unidirectional material. • Weaves can be formed with gradients in a single or double axis by changing yarn size across the width or length • Complex shapes can be achieved through “floating” and cutting yarns to reduce total number of yarns in some section of the part

  28. Gradations through yarn size

  29. Shape through floats

  30. Issues with shaping woven fabrics • Tailoring the cross-section of a woven fabric will generally result in • a change in weave angle, • a change in the distribution of longitudinal, weaver, and fill, and • a change in fiber volume fraction in consequence to the change in thickness. • Some fiber volume fraction effects can be controlled by tooling. The tailoring occurs in a discrete manner, using individual yarns, whereas most tooling will be approximately continuous.

  31. Example of single taper weave • Consider a tapered panel where gradation in thickness is achieved by changing yarn size/count across the width

  32. Design of tapered woven panel • Pick count is constant, warps and wefts per dent are modified to taper • Z yarn path changes to accommodate the weave.

  33. Variation in Fiber Volume Fraction • This variation in yarn packing results in variations in Vf for the resulting composite.

  34. Variation in weave angle • The weave angle will also change throughout the width of the part due to varying warp yarn count and part thickness.

  35. Yarn Distributions • The distribution of warp, weft, and Z yarn will also vary throughout the part.

  36. Variations in Modulus • All mechanical properties will vary throughout the part

  37. Volume Fraction • Volume fraction is the percent of fiber contained within a given volume (usually the composite in question) • Volume fraction can be calculated from areal density • Vf = A r / t • Where Vf = fiber volume fraction, A = areal density, r = density of the fibers, and t = composite thickness

  38. Process Control and Variability • Processing Errors • Damaged yarns • Misplaced yarns • Sources of error • Machinery malfunction • Machinery variability • Bad control parameters • Post-manufacturing deviations

  39. Distortions in Woven Fabrics

  40. On-line Monitoring of Manufacturing • Realtime feed-back from shedding and insertion mechanisms • Visual scan of fabric surfaces • Xray or neutron scan of fabric interior • Using tracer yarns

  41. Three Dimensional Weaving • Uses "standard" weaving technology • Complexity of weave is limited by number of independent shedding devices • Some limitations on maximum thickness of fabric due to shed size and beatup limitations

  42. Types of 3-D Woven Fabrics • XYZ • Layer-to-layer • Through-thickness

  43. 3-D Weaving shed weaver warp filling insertion fabric movement

  44. XYZ 3-D Woven Fabrics

  45. Layer-to-layer 3-D Woven Fabrics

  46. Through thickness 3-D Woven Fabrics

  47. Components of 3-D Woven Fabrics • Longitudinal yarns • Parallel to warp direction • Weaving yarns (web yarns) • Lie in warp-thickness plane • Surface weavers • Lie in warp-thickness plane • Located at t=0, t=max • Filling yarns • Lie in fill-thickness plane • Generally aligned with the fill direction

  48. Components of 3-D Woven Fabrics 1/h p Fills Longitudinals Weaver t q Surface Weaver warp

  49. Physical Relationships of 3-D Woven Fabrics • Vf = ∑ Wi / Wc • Wc = (1/hp) (1/hw) t • Wi = mi Ai li • ll = (1/hp) • lw = (1/hp)/cos(qw) • ls = (1/hp)/cos(qs) • lp = (1/hw)

  50. Process Variables • Yarn sizes (all independent) • Reed size (limited by yarn size) • Picks per inch (limited by yarn size) • Weave angle • Number of filled warp positions