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Old Testament. The Major Prophets. English Old Testament. Historical Books. Joshua, Judges, Ruth, 1-2 Samuel, 1-2 Kings, 1-2 Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther. Pentateuch. Poetic Books. Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon. Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy.
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Old Testament The Major Prophets
English Old Testament Historical Books Joshua, Judges, Ruth, 1-2 Samuel, 1-2 Kings, 1-2 Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther Pentateuch Poetic Books Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy Prophetic Books Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lamentations, Ezekiel, Daniel, Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi
What is a Prophet? • They functioned as Preachers • They functioned as Predictors • Prophet versus Priest
Isaiah The Old Testament Gospel
The Bible Isaiah Old Testament: 39 Books New Testament: 27 Books Judgment: 39 Chapters Comfort: 27 Chapters Total Books: 66 Books Total: 66 Chapters
God’s Government God’s Grace A throne (6:1) A lamb (53:6) Overview of Isaiah Chapters 36-39 Chapters 40-66 Historical Interlude Glory in the Future Chapters 1-35 The Judgment of God The Comfort of God Judgments in the Present Messiah the Judge Messiah the Servant
Isaiah 1 A Microcosm of the Entire Book of Isaiah
Child Motif • Shear-jashub (Isaiah 7:3) • Immanu-el (Isaiah 7:14; 8:8) • Maher-shalal-hash-baz (Isaiah 8:3) • Isaiah’s children (Isaiah 8:18) • The Royal Child (Isaiah 9:6-7).
Jeremiah The Weeping Prophet
Jeremiah Saw the Southern Kingdom of Judah taken into Captivity at the hands of Babylon Isaiah Foretold of the judgments that would come in the future Explained the reasons for the judgments Judah was experiencing Saw the Northern Kingdom of Israel taken into Captivity at the hands of Assyria Looks primarily to the future Looks primarily to the present
Jeremiah Bold and fearless Gentle and compassionate Isaiah Was married to a prophetess and had children with prophetic names Was commanded not to take a wife or have any children
Overview of Jeremiah Chapters 2-20 Chapters21-45 Chapters46-51 Chapter 52 From Josiah to the first year of Nebuchadnezzar From Josiah’s sons to the Captivity Oracles to the Nations Epilogue Chapter 1 Call of Jeremiah Fall of Jerusalem Judgment against Judah Nations Prologue
Call of Jeremiah (1) Pattern of Jeremiah Prophecies of Judah & Jerusalem (2-35) Historical Narrative Prior to the fall of Jerusalem (36-38) The fall of Jerusalem (39) After the fall of Jerusalem (40-45) Prophecies of other nations (46-51) Fall of Jerusalem (52)
Jeremiah 31:31-32 “Behold, days are coming,” declares the LORD, “when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah, 32 not like the covenant which I made with their fathers in the day I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt, My covenant which they broke, although I was a husband to them,” declares the LORD.
Jeremiah 31:33 “But this is the covenant which I will make with the house of Israel after those days," declares the LORD, “I will put My law within them, and on their heart I will write it; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people.
Jeremiah 31:34 And they shall not teach again, each man his neighbor and each man his brother, saying, ‘Know the LORD,’ for they shall all know Me, from the least of them to the greatest of them,” declares the LORD, “for I will forgive their iniquity, and their sin I will remember no more.”
New Covenant Old Covenant Jerusalem Church Let us go up to the house of the Lord Go unto all the world and make disciples of the nations
Lamentations The Song of Sorrow
Lamentations 3:40-42 Let us examine and probe our ways, And let us return to the LORD. We lift up our heart and hands Toward God in heaven; We have transgressed and rebelled, Thou hast not pardoned.
Lessons from Lamentations • God is Sovereign over the affairs of men • Sin brings forth tragic consequences • There is hope in the darkness
Ezekiel The Prophet-Priest
Ezekiel 1 - 24 25 - 32 33 - 48 Oracles against Judah Oracles against Nations Oracles of Salvation Ezekiel’s call (1-2) Judgment (3-7) Temple (8-11) Judgment (12-14) Pictures (15-19) Judgment (20-23) Pictures (24) Amon Moab Edom Philistia Tyre Sidon Egypt Watchman (33) Restoration (34-37) Gog & Magog (38-39) New Temple (40-48)
620 610 600 590 580 570 560 Jehoahaz Jehoiachin Amos Josiah Babylonian Captivity Zedekiah Jehoiakim Jerusalem & Temple Destroyed Joel? Obadiah? Jeremiah Daniel Habakkuk Ezekiel Fall of Nineveh
The Glory of the Lord • Ezekiel sees the glory of the presence of the Lord within His temple (8:4). • The glory of God is seen at the doorway to the temple (9:3). • It next leaves the doorway and moves out to the Eastern Gate (10:18)
The Glory of the Lord • It moves completely out of the city of Jerusalem: And the glory of the LORD went up from the midst of the city, and stood over the mountain which is east of the city (Ezekiel 11:23).
A Temple within the City The New Jerusalem Ezekiel’s Vision John’s Revelation Ezekiel is taken in this vision to a very high mountain (40:2) John is carried in the Spirit to a great and high mountain (21:10) A man uses a rod to measure the dimensions of the temple (40:5-ff) An angel measures the city with a rod (21:15-17) The entire temple area is a perfect square (42:15-20) The entire city is a perfect cube (21:16)
A Temple within the City The New Jerusalem Ezekiel’s Vision John’s Revelation The presence of the glory of the Lord enters the temple (43:3-4) No need of sun or moon because the Lord illumines His city (22:5) No foreigner is admitted into the temple (44:9) Nothing unclean and no unbeliever is allowed into the city (21:8, 27) A river of water flows out of the temple (47:1) A river of the water of life comes from the throne of God (22:1)
A Temple within the City The New Jerusalem Ezekiel’s Vision John’s Revelation There are a total of 12 gates around the city (48:30-34) There are 12 gates to the city (21:21) The name of the city shall be: “The Lord is there” (48:35). The throne of God shall be there (22:3)
Ezekiel 43:4-5 And the glory of the LORD came into the house by the way of the gate facing toward the east. 5 And the Spirit lifted me up and brought me into the inner court; and behold, the glory of the LORD filled the house.
Overview of Daniel 8:1 Written in the Third Person Written in the First Person Seven Historical Narratives Four Prophetic Visions 1:1 Hebrew Written in Aramaic Written in Hebrew Prologue Prophetic History relating to the Gentiles Prophetic History relating to the Jews
Meaning Daniel 7 Kings & Kingdoms Vision of beasts from the sea Daniel 2 Head of fine gold Babylon Lion with wings Breast & arms of silver Medes & Persia Bear with three ribs in its teeth Vision of a great statue Belly & thighs of bronze Greek Empire Leopard with 4 wings & 4 heads Legs of iron & clay; ten toes Antiochus? Rome? Beast with iron teeth & ten horns
Meaning Daniel 7 All previous kingdoms destroyed by the stone cut without hands Coming of the Lord and His Kingdom Ancient of Days takes his seat and passes judgment Daniel 2 A new kingdom that will never be destroyed (2:44) His kingdom will be an everlasting kingdom (7:27)
Successive beasts rise up out of the ocean A ram standing by a canal is attacked by a goat coming from the west Babylon Medes & Persia Greece Other Kingdom Medes & Persia Greece Daniel 8 Vision given in the third year of the reign of Belshazzar the king Daniel 7 Dream comes in the first year of Belshazzar king of Babylon Large horn broken; gives way to ten horns Terrible beast has ten horns
Daniel 8 Out comes a small horn that… Out comes a small horn that… Daniel 7 Pulls up three previous horns Utters great boasts Alterations in times and law Wages war against saints and wins against them Grows exceedingly Magnifies itself against heaven Removes regular sacrifice & throws down the temple Flings truth to the ground
Daniel 8 Endures for 2300 mornings and evenings Saints are given into his hand for a time, times, and half a time Daniel 7 Then the holy place will be properly restored Then sovereignty, dominion, and greatness are given to the saints of the Most High
Daniel 12:1 Now at that time Michael, the great prince who stands guard over the sons of your people, will arise. And there will be a time of distress such as never occurred since there was a nation until that time; and at that time your people, everyone who is found written in the book, will be rescued.
Daniel 12:2 And many of those who sleep in the dust of the ground will awake, these to everlasting life, but the others to disgrace and everlasting contempt.
“A time of distress…” • Abomination of Desolation brought by Antiochus Epiphanes in 168 B.C. • Destruction of the Temple brought by Titus in A.D. 70 • The Final Judgment
Daniel 12:4 But as for you, Daniel, conceal these words and seal up the book until the end of time; many will go back and forth, and knowledge will increase.