Argumentative Writing Decoded Jennifer C. Chandler, Presenter Lead Master Teacher, Shelby County Schools White Station Middle School, 7th Grade English
What is an argument? • An argument involves the process of establishing a claim and then proving it with the use of logical reasoning, examples, and research.
Essential Ingredients • An issue open to debate • Position on the issue • Reasons for that position • Evidence to support the reasons:experience, expert opinion, research, statistics • Counterclaims • Conclusion
An Issue Open to Debate • Marijuana should be legalized. • Arguable Smoking is harmful to people’s health. • Not Arguable • ABCD is the best school in the district. • Arguable • Emissions hurt the ozone. • Not arguable
The Architecture of Argument THE OPPOSITION YOUR POSITION
THE OPPOSITION YOUR POSITION The Architecture of Argument
THE OPPOSITION YOUR POSITION The Architecture of Argument REASON
THE OPPOSITION YOUR POSITION REASON The Architecture of Argument
YOUR POSITION REASON THE OPPOSITION The Architecture of Argument EVIDENCE
Introduction Thesis Statement Background Information Reasons and Evidence The Opposing View and the Refutation Conclusion The Structure of Classical Argument ü ü ü ü ü ü
All persuasive appeals are really about involving your audience. Three persuasive appeals • Logos (Logic) • The appeal to reason • Pathos (Emotion) • The appeal to emotion • Ethos (Credibility) • The appeal of one’s character
The Process • Analyze exemplar texts. • Persuasive vs. Argumentative • Organization • Discuss the structure of a “Classical Argument.” • Evaluate structure of an exemplar. • Assign writing topic.
Strategies and Tips • Use exemplars to teach persuasive vs. argumentative to build foundational knowledge. (p. 2-3) • When choosing exemplar for evaluation, pick a topic that interests students. (p. 4-5) • Differentiate your scaffolding of the process as needed. (last page) • Feedback: Quality over quantity!
Close Reading of Exemplar Table 1: Structure of Classical Argument Table 2: Word Choice Table 3: Conclusion Table 4: Appeals to Authority Table 5: Appeals to Emotion Table 6: Appeals to Reason Table 7: Examples of Refutation and Concession
Resources • Mike McGuire’s Com 101 class notes, MV Community College • Dr. Josephine Koster of material from Real Writing (2nd Edition) by Walter Beale (1986) • Exemplar argumentative text: http://faculty.winthrop.edu/kosterj/archives/writ102/sampleclassical argument.htm • Notes on “The Classical Argument”: www.winthrop.edu/uploadedFiles/writingcenter/centerHandoutClassicalArgument.pdf • Edward P. J. Corbett, Classical Rhetoric for the Modern Student (Oxford, 1971) • Walter H. Beale, Real Writing (Scott Foresman, 1986)
The End • Jennifer C. Chandler • Email: email@example.com • Website: www.mrschandler.com • Twitter: @chandlerjc / @wsms.chandlerjc • LinkedIn: www.linkedin.com/in/mrschandler • Pinterest: www.pinterest.com/chandlerjc