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Emergency Nursing
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Emergency Nursing

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  1. Prepared by: Atef J Ismail Under Supervion of Prof. Dr. Warda Yosef Emergency Nursing

  2. Learning Objectives • Explain emergency care as a collaborative, holistic approach that includes the patient, the family, and significant others. 2. Discuss priority emergency measures instituted for any patient with an emergency condition. 3. Describe the emergency management of patients with intra- abdominal injuries. 4. Identify the priorities of care for the patient with multiple injuries. 5. Compare and contrast the emergency management of patients with heat stroke, frostbite, and hypothermia.

  3. Learning Objectives 6.Specify the similarities and differences of the emergency management of patients with swallowed or inhaled poisons, skin contamination, and food poisoning. 7. Discuss the emergency management of patients with drug overdose and with acute alcohol intoxication. 8. Describe the significance of crisis intervention in the care of rape victims. 9. Differentiate between the emergency care of patients who are overactive, those who are violent, those who are depressed, and those who are suicidal.

  4. Scope and Practice of Emergency Nursing • Emergency management traditionally refers to urgent and critical care needs; however, the ED has increasingly been used for non-urgent problems, and emergency management has broadened to include the concept that an emergency is whatever the patient or family considers it to be • The emergency nurse has special training, education, experience, and expertise in assessing and identifying health care problems in crisis situations

  5. Scope and Practice of Emergency Nursing(cont.) • Nursing interventions are accomplished interdependently in consultation with or under the direction of a physician or nurse practitioner • The emergency room staff works as a team

  6. Issues in Emergency Nursing Care • Documentation of consent • Limiting exposure to health risks • Holistic care

  7. Continuum of Care • Discharge planning • Community Services

  8. Priority Emergency Measures for All Patients • Make safety the first priority • Preplan to ensure security and a safe environment • Closely observe patient and family members in the event that they respond to stress with physical violence • Assess the patient and family for psychological function

  9. Priority Emergency Measures for All Patients (cont.) • Patient and family-focused interventions • Relieve anxiety and provide a sense of security • Allow family to stay with patient, if possible, to alleviate anxiety • Provide explanations and information • Provide additional interventions depending upon the stage of crisis

  10. Triage Emergent Urgent Non-urgent Assess and Intervene A, B, C Neuro Health history and head-to-toe assessment Principles of Emergency Care

  11. Assess and Intervene A, B, C Neuro Health history Diagnostic and lab testing Insertion of monitoring devices Splinting Wounds Principles of Emergency Care (cont’d)

  12. Triage • Triage sorts patients by hierarchy based on the severity of health problems and the immediacy with which these problems must be treated • The triage nurse collects data and classifies the illnesses and injuries to ensure that the patients most in need of care do not needlessly wait • Protocols may be initiated in the triage area • ED triage differs from disaster triage in that patients who are the most critically ill receive the most resources, regardless of potential outcome

  13. Airway Obstruction • Head-Tilt-Chin-Lift Maneuver • Jaw-Thrust Maneuver • Oropharyngeal Airway Insertion • Endotracheal Intubation • Alternative Intubation Method • Cricothyroidotomy

  14. Hemorrhage • Fluid Replacement • Control of External Hemorrhage • Control of Internal Bleeding

  15. Hypovolemic Shock • Patent airway and ventilation • Restoration of circulating fluid volume • Central Venous Pressure • Blood component therapy

  16. Wounds • Restore physical integrity and function of injured tissue, with minimal scarring and without infection • Wound cleansing • Primary closure • Delayed primary closure

  17. Management of Patients With Intra-Abdominal Injuries • Blunt trauma or penetrating injuries • Abdominal trauma can cause massive life-threatening blood loss into abdominal cavity • Assessment • Obtain history • Perform abdominal assessment and assess other body systems for injuries that frequently accompany abdominal injuries

  18. Management of Patients With Intra-Abdominal Injuries (cont.) • Assessment (cont.) • Assess for referred pain that may indicate spleen, liver, or intraperitoneal injury • Perform laboratory studies, CT scan, abdominal ultrasound (FAST), and diagnostic peritoneal lavage • Assess stab wound via sonography

  19. Management of Patients With Intra-Abdominal Injuries (cont.) • Ensure airway, breathing, and circulation • Immobilize cervical spine • Continually monitor the patient • Document all wounds • If viscera are protruding, cover with a sterile, moist saline dressing • Hold oral fluids • NG to aspirate stomach contents • Provide tetanus and antibiotic prophylaxis • Provide rapid transport to surgery if indicated

  20. Priorities of Care for the Patient With Multiple Trauma • Use a team approach • Determine the extent of injuries and establish priorities of treatment • Assume cervical spine injury • Assign highest priority to injuries interfering with vital physiologic function

  21. Priorities in the Management of the Patient With Multiple Injuries

  22. Priorities in the Management of the Patient with Multiple Injuries (cont.)

  23. Environmental Emergencies—Heat Stroke • A failure of heat regulating mechanisms • Types • Exertional: occurs in healthy individuals during exertion in extreme heat and humidity • Hyperthermia: the result of inadequate heat loss • Elderly, very young, ill, or debilitated—and persons on some medications—are at high risk • Can cause death • Manifestations: CNS dysfunction, elevated temperature, hot dry skin, anhydrosis, tachypnea, hypotension, and tachycardia

  24. Management of Patients With Heat Stroke • Use ABCs and reduce temperature to 39° C as quickly as possible • Cooling methods • Cool sheets, towels, or sponging with cool water • Apply ice to neck, groin, chest, and axillae • Cooling blankets • Iced lavage of the stomach or colon • Immersion in cold water bath • Monitor temperature, VS, ECG, CVP, LOC, urine output • Use IVs to replace fluid losses • Hyperthermia may recur in 3 to 4 hours; avoid hypothermia

  25. Environmental Emergencies—Frostbite • Trauma from freezing temperature and actual freezing of fluid in the intracellular and intercellular spaces • Manifestations: hard, cold, and insensitive to touch; may appear white or mottled; and may turn red and painful as rewarmed • The extent of injury is not always initially known • Controlled but rapid rewarming; 37° to 40° C circulating bath for 30- to 40-minute intervals • Administer analgesics for pain • Do not massage or handle; if feet are involved, do not allow patient to walk

  26. Environmental Emergencies—Hypothermia • Internal core temperate is 35° C or less • Elderly, infants, persons with concurrent illness, the homeless, and trauma victims are at risk • Alcohol ingestion increases susceptibility • Hypothermia may be seen with frostbite; treatment of hypothermia takes precedence • Physiologic changes in all organ systems • Monitor continuously

  27. Management of Patients With Hypothermia • Use ABCs, remove wet clothing, and rewarm • Rewarming • Active core rewarming • Cardiopulmonary bypass, warm fluid administration, warm humidified oxygen, and warm peritoneal lavage • Passive external rewarming • Warm blankets and over-the-bed heaters • Cold blood returning from the extremities has high levels of lactic acid and can cause potential cardiac dysrhythmias and electrolyte disturbances

  28. Management of Patients With Poisoning • Poison is any substance that when ingested, inhaled, absorbed, applied to the skin, or produced within the body in relativity small amounts injures the body by its chemical action • Treatment goals: • Remove or inactivate the poison before it is absorbed • Provide supportive care in maintaining vital organ systems • Administer specific antidotes • Implement treatment to hasten the elimination of the poison

  29. Assessment of Patients With Ingested Poisons • Use ABCs • Monitor VS, LOC, ECG, and UO • Assess laboratory specimens • Determine what, when, and how much substance was ingested • Assess signs and symptoms of poisoning and tissue damage • Assess health history • Determine age and weight

  30. Management of Patients With Ingested Poisons • Measures to remove the toxin or decrease its absorption • Use of emetics • Gastric lavage • Activated charcoal • Cathartic when appropriate • Administration of specific antagonist as early as possible • Other measures may include diuresis, dialysis, or hemoperfusion

  31. Management of Patients With Ingested Poisons (cont.) • Corrosive agents such as acids and alkalis cause destruction of tissues by contact; do not induce vomiting with corrosive agents

  32. Management Patients With Carbon Monoxide Poisoning • Inhaled carbon monoxide binds to hemoglobin as carboxyhemoglobin, which does not transport oxygen • Manifestations: CNS symptoms predominate • Skin color is not a reliable sign and pulse oximetry is not valid • Treatment • Get to fresh air immediately • Perform CPR as necessary • Administer oxygen: 100% or oxygen under hyperbaric pressure • Monitor patient continuously

  33. Management of Patients With Chemical Burns • Severity of the injury depends upon the mechanism of action of the substance, the penetrating strength and concentration, and the amount of skin exposed to the agent • Immediately flush the skin with running water from a shower, hose, or faucet • Lye or white phosphorus must be brushed off the skin dry

  34. Management of Patients With Chemical Burns (cont.) • Protect health care personnel from the substance • Determine the substance • Some substances may require prolonged flushing/irrigation • Follow-up care includes reexamination of the area at 24 hours, 72 hours, and 7 days

  35. Management of Patients With Food Poisoning • A sudden illness due to the ingestion of contaminated food or drink • Food poisoning, such as botulism or fish poisoning, may result in respiratory paralysis and death • ABCs and supportive measures • Determination of food poisoning: see Chart 71-12 • Treat fluid and electrolyte imbalances • Control nausea and vomiting • Provide clear liquid diet and progression of diet after nausea and vomiting subside

  36. Management of Patients With Substance Abuse • Acute alcohol intoxication: a multisystem toxin • Alcohol poisoning may result in death • Maintain airway and observe for CNS depression and hypotension • Rule out other potential causes of the behaviors before it is assumed the patient is intoxicated • Use a nonjudgmental, calm manner • Patient may need sedation if noisy or belligerent • Examine for withdrawal delirium, injuries, and evidence of other disorders • Commonly abused substances: see Table 71-1

  37. Crisis Intervention—Rape Victims • How the patient is received and treated in the ED is important to his or her psychological well-being • Crisis intervention begins as soon as the patient enters the facility; the patient should be seen immediately • Goals are to provide support, reduce emotional trauma, and gather evidence for possible legal proceedings • Patient reaction; rape trauma syndrome • History taking and documentation • Physical examination and collection of forensic evidence • Role of the sexual assault nurse examiner(SANE)

  38. Psychiatric Emergencies • Overactive, underactive, violent, and depressed or suicidal patients • Management • Maintain the safety of all persons and gain control of the situation • Determine if the patient is at risk for injuring himself or others • Maintain the person’s self-esteem while providing care • Determine if the person has a psychiatric history or is currently under care to contact the therapist • Crisis intervention • Interventions specific to each of the conditions