Factors Contributing To Excess Body Fat • Genetic Factors– 5-40% of population affected by genetic factors; affects body size and shape, distribution, and how easy it can be to gain or lose weight; genes are not destiny though; People have a tendency that is inherited, but expression of this tendency is influenced by environment. For example, just because both parents may be obese that does not mean the child automatically will be obese. It is the choices that are made that affect the weight, like eating choices or activity level • Physiological Factors • Metabolism (RMR) – resting metabolic rate – Definition – vital processes by which food energy and nutrients are made available to use by the body. Basically we are looking at how much energy or calories your body burns at rest. The higher your RMR, the more calories you burn at rest so you can consume more calories. Muscle mass proportion can affect RMR. People that have a higher portion of fat-free mass have a higher RMR because muscle is more metabolically active than fat. When people engage in low-carb diets they actually slow down there RMR because the body want to preserve the energy that it is losing by not having its #1 fuel source, which is carbs. • Lifestyle Factors • Eating • Physical Activity
Adopting A Healthy Lifestyle For Successful Weight Management Portion Control – Limiting your food intake to recommendations in the Food Guide Pyramid. This is easier than trying to count calories. Diet and Eating Habits – Diet refers to the choices in food you eat. Dieting is the act of restricting food. Making changing in your diet versus dieting is the smarter choice. Try to develop a diet you enjoy and that helps your maintain a healthy body composition is key. *Total Calories per day that should be consumed for each society group. Check were you stand: • 1600 calories - Sedentary women and older adults • 2200 calories - Children, teenage girls, active women, and sedentary men • 2800 calories - Teenage boys, active men, and very active women.
Physical Activity and Exercise • Muscles needing energy – Increasing your muscle tone keeps your metabolism high and gears the body for using calories as energy instead of storing them as fat. • Aerobic activity is best. It burns more of the fat, instead of just simple sugars. • Must last 30-60 minutes. • Use all major muscle groups. • Gradually increase time of endurance activities.
Overcoming a Weight Problem • Avoid low-calorie diets • Initial weight loss from fluids, not body fat • Diet Books – Avoid them if they promote any of the following • Only promote a single food and/or foods high in one area and low in another. • Have the “secret” to success or have a scientific breakthrough • Use “gimmicks”, like matching food intake to blood type • Promotes quick weight loss or limits selections of foods • Diet Supplements and Diet Aids • Quick and easy path to weight loss, but dangerous. Not effective for long-term, healthy weight management • Subject to fewer regulation by the FDA than over-the-counter medications • More than 50% of the advertisements for supplements or aids are false • Examples, Ephedra, Metabolite, Hydroxicut, Trim Spa
Overcoming a Weight Problem • Responsible and safe programs should provide: • Include components from all the food groups; Physical Activity and Exercise should be strongly encouraged • Promote slow, steady weight loss averaging about ½ - 2 pounds per week • Physician evaluation and monitoring should be recommended if losing more than 20 pounds, have health problems, or taking medication on a regular basis • Should include plans for weight maintenance after the weight-loss phase is over • Should provide fees and cost of program, as well as data on expected risk and outcomes
Weight Loss Most Experts Recommend a Gradual Weight Loss of ½ to 2 Pounds Per Week!! 1 Lb. Of Fat Is About 3,500 Calories. How? Reduce Diet by 250 Calories/day and Expend 250 Additional Calories/day
Eating Disorders • Anorexia Nervosa - Failure to eat enough food to maintain a reasonable body weight. • Characteristics • Fear gaining weight. • Distorted self-image. • Compulsive behaviors and rituals. • Health Risks – stop menstruating, which drops estrogen levels and makes bone so brittle and fragile, becomes intolerant of cold and diseases, low blood pressure and heart rate, hair becomes thin and falls out, skin becomes severely dry, feet and hands swell, depression, and death
Eating Disorders • Bulimia Nervosa - recurring episodes of binge eating followed by purging (vomiting or misuse of laxatives, diuretics or exercise) • Characteristics • Rapidly consumes food, then purges. • Done in secret. • After a binge - feels ashamed, disgusted and physically and emotional drained. • Health Risks – erosion of tooth enamel due to prolonged contact with stomach acids through vomiting all the time, damage to liver and kidneys, esophagus bleeding, irregular heart rhythms, and rupture of stomach
Eating Disorders • Binge-Eating - Similar to Bulimia except no Purging behavior. • Eating patterns - very rapid, eating until uncomfortably full. • Often eat as a way of coping. • Likely to be obese.
Treatment • Address both eating disorder, misuse of food and manage emotions • Anorexia Nervosa • Bulimia Nervosa • Binge-Eating • Today’s Challenge – being able to achieve a healthy body weight without excessive dieting and being able to adopt and maintain sensible eating habits, active lifestyle, realistic and positive attitudes