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Opener Chapter 7

Opener Chapter 7

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Opener Chapter 7

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  1. Opener Chapter 7 Chapter 7 Animal Classification, Phylogeny, and Organization

  2. Common names • Crawdads, crayfish, or crawfish? • English sparrow, barn sparrow, or a house sparrow? Problem with common names • Vary from region to region • Common names often does not specify particular species

  3. Binomial system of Nomenclature brings order to a chaotic world of common names • Universal • Clearly indicates the level of classification • No two kinds of animals have the same binomial name • Every animal has one correct name International Code of Zoological Nomenclature

  4. Genus begins with a Capital letter • Entire name italicized or underlined • Homo sapien or H. sapien

  5. Kingdom of Life 1969 R. Whittaker- five kingdom classification System of classification that distinguished b/w kingdoms according to • cellular organization • mode of nutrition

  6. Monera- bacteria and cyanobacteria are prokaryotic

  7. Protista- single or colonies of eukaryotic cells (Ameoba, Paramecium)

  8. Plantae- eukaryotic, multicellular, and photosynthtic. Have cell wall, and usually nonmotile

  9. Fungi-eukaryotic and multicellular. Have cell wall and nonmotile. Mode of nutrition distiguishes fungi from plant- fungi digest extracellularly and absorb the breakdown products

  10. Animalia- eukaryotic and multicellular, usually feed by ingesting other organisms, cell lack cell walls, and usually motile

  11. Figure 7.2 (a)

  12. Challenge of the five class system • Ribosomal RNA excellent for studying evolution • rRNA changes very slow (evolutionary conservation) • Closely related organisms have similar rRNAs • Comparison of rRNA of different organisms concludes • All life shares a common ancestor • Three major evolutionary lineage (domains) and supersedes the kingdom as the broadest taxonomic grouping

  13. The three domains • Arhaea- prokaryotic microbes live in extreme environments, inhabit anaerobic environments • Reflect the conditions of early life • Archaea the most primitive life form • Archaea give rise to two other domains • Eubacteria- true bacteria and are prokaryotic microorganisms • Eukarya- include all eukaryotic organisms, diverged more recently thus more closely related to archae (protists, fungi, plants and animals)

  14. Figure 7.2 (b)

  15. Text devoted to animals • Except for Chapter 8 Animal like protists (Amoeba and Paramecium) • The inclusion of protozoa is part of a tradition • Once considered a phylum (Protozoa) in the animal kingdom

  16. Pattern of Organization • Symmetry • Asymmetry • Radial symmetry • Bilateral symmetry

  17. Figure 7.7 Asymmetry red encrusting sponge

  18. Figure 7.8 Radial symmetry tube coral pulp

  19. Part 2

  20. Bilateral animals • Bilateral symmetry = important evolutionary advancement • Important for active, directed movement • Anterior, posterior ends • One side of body kept up (dorsal) vs. down (ventral)

  21. Directed movement evolved with anterior sense organscephalization Cephalization • specialization of sense organs in head end of animals

  22. Bilateral Symmetry • Divided along sagittal plane into two mirror images • sagittal= divides bilateral organisms into right and left halves

  23. Anterior= head end • Posterior= tail end • Dorsal= back side • Ventral= belly side

  24. Symmetry, fig. 7.9 • Median= sagittal

  25. Other Patterns of Organization may reflect evolutionary trends • Unicellular (cytoplasmic)- organisms consist of single cells or cellular aggregates, • provide functions of locomotion, food acquisition, digestion, water and ion regulation, sensory perception and reproduction in a single cell. • Cellular aggregates consist of loose association, cells that exhibit little interdependence, cooperation, or coordination of function • Some cells may be specialized for reproduction, nutritive or structural function

  26. Diploblastic Organization • Cells are organized into tissues in most animal phyla • Body parts are organized into layers derived from two embryonic tissue layers. • Ectoderm- Gr. ektos, outside + derm, skin gives rise to the epidermis the outer layer of the body wall • Endoderm- Gr. Endo, within, gives rise to the gastrodermis that lines the gut

  27. Mesoglea- between the ecto and endo and may or may not contain cells • Derived from ecto and/or endo • Cells form middle layer (mesenchyme) • Layers are functionally inderdependent, yet cooperate showing tissue level organization i.e. feeding movements of Hydra or swimming movements of a jellyfish

  28. Figure 7.10

  29. The Triploblastic (treis, three +blaste, sprout) • Animals described in chapters 10-22 • Tissues derived from three embryological layers • Ectoderm- outer layer • Endoderm- lines the gut • Mesoderm- meso, middle, Third layer between Ecto and Endo • Give rise to supportive cells

  30. Figure 7.11

  31. Most have an organ system level of organization • Usually bilaterally symmetrical or evolved from bilateral ancestors • Organized into several groups based on the presence or absence of body cavity and for those that posses one, the kind of body cavity present. • Body cavity- fluid filled space in which the internal organs can be suspended and separated from the body wall

  32. Body cavities are advantageous • Provide more room for organ development • Provide more surface area for diffusion of gases, nutrients, and waste into and out of organs • Provide area for storage • Often act as hydrostatic skeletons (supportive yet flexible) • Provide a vehicle for eliminating wastes and reproductive products from the body • Facilitate increase in body size

  33. What does acoelomate mean? No coelom

  34. Acoelomate a, without+ kilos, hollow • Mesoderm relatively solid mass • No cavity formed between ecto and endo • These cells within mesoderm often called parenchymal cells • Parenchymal cells not speciallized for a particular fnc.

  35. What’s a coelom? Earthworm • coelom= • true body cavity • Fluid-filled • lined by mesoderm-derived epithelium

  36. Acoelomates lack a true body cavity • Solid body • no cavity b/w the digestive tract and outer body wall

  37. Do these questions now… • Think about aceolomate bilateral animals: • To what domain do they belong • “ ” kingdom ” ” ” • What phyla include these organisms • What is bilateral symmetry, and why was it an important evolutionary advantage movie

  38. Acoelomate Bilateral Animals • Consist of phyla: • Phylum Platyhelminthes • Phylum Nemertea • Others…

  39. Acoelomate Bilateral Animals Reproductive and osmoregulatory systems • Simplest organisms to have bilateral symmetry • Triploblastic • Lack a coelom • Organ-system level of organization • Cephalization • Elongated, without appendages

  40. Acoelomate Bilateral Animals Reproductive and osmoregulatory systems • Simplest organisms to have bilateral symmetry • Triploblastic • Lack a coelom • Organ-system level of organization • Cephalization • Elongated, without appendages

  41. Triploblastic Pseudocoelomate pseudes, false • Body cavity not entirely lined by mesoderm • No muscle or connective tissue associated with gut • No mesodermal

  42. The Triploblastic Coelomate Pattern • Coelom is a body cavity completely surrounded by mesoderm • Peritoneum- mesodermal sheet that lines the inner body wall and serosa (outer covering of visceral organs) • Having mesodermally derived tissue (muscle, connective tissue) enhances the function of all internal body systems.

  43. Figure 7.12

  44. Figure 7.3 Groups traced to separate ancestors All descendants of a single ancestor Includes some but not all of a members of a lineage Fig 7.3 Evolutionary groups

  45. Figure 7.4 Fig 7.4 Vertebrate Phylogenetic tree depicts the degree of divergence from a common ancestor

  46. Figure 7.5 Fig 7.5 Interpreting Cladograms Five taxa (1-5) and characteristics (A-H) Symplesiomorphies- common characters in a group

  47. Figure 7.6

  48. EOC Figure