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Directions on Controlled Substances from the UNODC, CND and INCB

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  1. Directions on Controlled Substancesfrom the UNODC, CND and INCB Dr Jim Cleary MD FAChPM Associate Professor of Medicine UW School of Medicine & Public Health Director, Pain & Policy Studies Group UW Carbone Cancer Center Madison, Wisconsin. USA

  2. WHO: Cancer Pain Relief 1986 1996

  3. CND 2011: Resolution 54/6 • Promoting adequate availability of internationally controlled narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances for medical and scientific purposes while preventing their diversion and abuse

  4. Commission of Narcotic Drugs • Recalling its resolution 53/4, 12 March 2010

  5. CND Resolution 53/4 (2010):Promoting adequate availability of internationally controlled licit drugs for medical and scientific purposes while preventing their diversion &abuse • Stressing the importance of promoting adequate availability of internationally controlled licit drugs for medical and scientific purposes while preventing their diversion and abuse,

  6. CND Resolution 53/4 • Recalling the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 as amended by the 1972 Protocol,in which the parties recognized that the medical use of narcotic drugs continued to be indispensable for the relief of pain and suffering and that adequate provision must be made to ensure the availability of narcotic drugs for such purposes, • Recalling also the Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971 in which it is recognized that the use of psychotropic substances for medical and scientific purposes is indispensable and that their availability for such purposes should not be unduly restricted,

  7. “the medical use of narcotic drugs continues to be indispensable for the relief of pain and suffering… adequate provision must be made to ensure the availability of narcotic drugs for such purposes.” (Preamble, p. 13)

  8. “the medical use of narcotic drugs continues to be indispensable for the relief of pain and suffering… adequate provision must be made to ensure the availability of narcotic drugs for such purposes.” (Preamble, p. 13)

  9. CND Resolution 53/4 • Recalling further Economic and Social Council resolution 2005/25 of 22 July 2005, on treatment of pain using opioid analgesics,

  10. U.N. ECOSOC Resolution 2005/25“Treatment of pain using opioids” • Medical use of narcotic drugs is indispensable for the relief of pain & suffering • Morphine should be available at all times in adequate amounts and appropriate dosage forms for the relief of severe pain • Low national consumption of opioids is a matter of great concern

  11. U.N. ECOSOC Resolution 2005/25“Treatment of pain using opioids” • Impediments include national drug regulations • Many countries have not • examined their policies for impediments • or removed regulatory barriers • Use the WHO/INCB document “Achieving Balance in National Opioids Control Policy”

  12. Achieving Balance in National Opioids Control Policy: Guidelines for Assessment (2000) • For governments and health professionals • Explains need, rationale and imperative • 16 criteria • Simplified Checklist • 22 Languages

  13. “Баланс”является фундаментальным принципом Национальная политика должна устанавливать систему контроля за оборотом наркотиков, которая предотвратит их утечкуиобеспечит их достаточное наличие для медицинских целей Меры по контролю за оборотом наркотиков не должны мешать медицинскому использованию опиатов

  14. The central principle of balance: • a dual obligation of governments to establish a system of control that ensures the adequate availability of controlled substances for medical and scientific purposes, while simultaneously preventing abuse, diversion and trafficking. Many controlled medicines are essential medicines and are absolutely necessary for the relief of pain, treatment of illness and the prevention of premature death. To ensure the rational use of these medicines, governments should both enable and empower healthcare professionals to prescribe, dispense and administer them according to the individual medical needs of patients, ensuring that a sufficient supply is available to meet those needs. While misuse of controlled substances poses a risk to society, the system of control is not intended to be a barrier to their availability for medical and scientific purposes, nor interfere in their legitimate medical use for patient care. CND. Resolution 53/4: Promoting adequate availability of internationally controlled licit drugs for medical and scientific purposes while preventing their diversion and abuse. 10th Plenary Meeting. 2010.

  15. CND Resolution 53/4 • Affirming that the international drug control conventions seek to achieve a balance between ensuring the availability of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances under international control for medical and scientific purposes and preventing their diversion and abuse, • Reaffirming the important role entrusted to the International Narcotics Control Board to ensure, in cooperation with Governments, the availability of narcotic drugs for medical and scientific purposes and prevent illicit trafficking in and use of drugs, as set out in article 9, paragraph 4, of the 1961 Convention as amended by the 1972 Protocol,

  16. CND 53/4 • Concerned that, although there is sufficient supply of licit opiate raw materials to meet global requirements, as highlighted in the annual reports of the International Narcotics Control Board for 2008 and 2009 access to opioid-based medications is non-existent or almost non-existent in many countries and regions, • Noting the concern expressed by the International Narcotics Control Board in its annual report for 2009 that some Governments need to take specific measures to ensure that their populations have adequate access to opioid-based medications in line with the international drug control conventions, • Underscoring the fact that the submission of estimates and statistical returns by Governments is critical to the actions taken by the International Narcotics Control Board for the implementation of treaty provisions regarding the adequate availability of internationally controlled licit drugs for medical and scientific purposes,

  17. Acknowledging that an increase in the licit supply of internationally controlled substances may raise the risk of diversion and abuse of those substances and that in its annual reports for 2008 and 2009, the International Narcotics Control Board encouraged Governments to increase their vigilance regarding trafficking in and abuse of prescription drugs containing internationally controlled substances and consider enacting enhanced laws to counter trafficking in such prescription drugs, • Noting the medical and scientific needs for internationally controlled substances worldwide to be met within a regulatory and legal framework that prevents their diversion and abuse, • Also noting that the survey of Governments carried out by the International Narcotics Control Board in 2007 identified concern about addiction to narcotic drugs to be the primary factor in the underutilization of essential medicines, followed by the factors of insufficient training of health-care professionals and the existence of restrictive laws that did not take into account the need to ensure the medical availability of narcotic drugs,

  18. Further noting that in the Political Declaration and Plan of Action on International Cooperation towards an Integrated and Balanced Strategy to Counter the World Drug Problem, Member States called for continued cooperation among Member States, the International Narcotics Control Board and the World Health Organization to ensure the adequate availability of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances under international control, including opiates, for medical and scientific purposes, while concurrently preventing their diversion into illicit channels, pursuant to the international drug control conventions, • Acknowledging the efforts of the World Health Organization, in consultation with the International Narcotics Control Board, to implement activities, under the Access to Controlled Medications Program, to address impediments to the availability of internationally controlled substances for medical purposes, • Noting with appreciation the efforts of the International Narcotics Control Board and the World Health Organization to develop guidelines on estimating requirements for internationally controlled substances,

  19. CND 53/4: 1-3 • Decides that the agenda for the 54th sessionof the Commission will include an agenda item on adequate availability of narcotic drugs &psychotropic substances for medical &scientific purposes in accordance with the international drug control treaties, in order to examine the impediments to adequate availability encountered & efforts to prevent the diversion & abuse of those drugs &substances; • Calls upon Member States to fulfil in a timely manner their reporting obligations to the International Narcotics Control Board and the Secretary-General, as appropriate, concerning the use of internationally controlled substances for medical and scientific purposes and the diversion of, trafficking in and abuse of those substances, as required under the international drug control treaties; • Encourages Member States to regularly examine, and report to the International Narcotics Control Board for inclusion in its annual report, trends in their countries in the use of internationally controlled licit substances for medical and scientific purposes, as well as trends in the diversion of, trafficking in and abuse of those substances and to take appropriate action, if necessary;

  20. CND 53/4: 4 4. Supports recommendation 39 of the International Narcotics Control Board contained in its annual report for 2009, in which the Board called on Governments to promote access to and rational use of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, to adopt measures against unlawful medical practice and to ensure that domestic distribution channels were adequately controlled, and Board recommendation, in which the Board requested Governments of countries in which factors such as knowledge limitations and administrative barriers stricter than the control measures required under the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 affected the availability of opioid analgesics to identify the impediments in their countries to the access and adequate use of opioid analgesics for the treatment of pain and to take steps to improve the availability of those narcotic drugs for medical purposes, in accordance with the pertinent recommendations of the World Health Organization;

  21. CND 53/4; 5 & 6 5. Encourages Member States to include in public awareness campaigns, as appropriate, the issue of the increased risk of diversion of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances and their abuse, particularly among young people; 6. Also encourages Member States, where necessary, to educate regulators and health-care professionals, including through targeted awareness-raising campaigns, to recognize that the medical use of narcotic drugs continues to be indispensable for the relief of pain and suffering and that adequate provision must be made to ensure the availability of narcotic drugs for such purposes, taking into account the pertinent recommendations of the World Health Organization and in line with the international drug control conventions;

  22. CND 53/4: 7 • Supports recommendation 22 of the International Narcotics Control Board contained in its annual report for 2009, in which the Board encouraged Governments concerned to introduce or expand programs for monitoring the domestic distribution of prescription drugs and recommended that in order to reduce the problem of improper prescription practices, Governments should consider carrying out program, to be targeted appropriately, to inform health-care professionals and the general public of the dangers of misusing prescription drugs containing narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances; and noted that program for medical professionals should include information on the risk of diversion, including secondary access to prescribed medications by family members and friends of the intended user, appropriate prescription practices and attempts by individuals to illegally obtain prescriptions from multiple doctors through fraudulent methods (“doctor shopping”);

  23. CND 53/4: 8 & 9 • Invites the International Narcotics Control Board, as in previous years, to include in its annual report for 2010, to be presented to the Commission at its fifty- fourth session, information on the consumption of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances used for medical and scientific purposes worldwide, including an analysis of impediments to their adequate availability and actions to be taken to overcome those impediments and, when available, specific information about the status of and progress made by countries; 9. Requests the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime to continue its efforts to ensure the adequate availability of internationally controlled drugs for medical and scientific purposes, cooperating, as appropriate, through the Access to Controlled Medications Program of the World Health Organization, while continuing its activities to prevent diversion and abuse;

  24. CND 54/3 Member States 10. Encourages Member States to consider working with the International Narcotics Control Board and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime to update policies and legislative frameworks, as appropriate, to ensure adequate availability of internationally controlled substances and to prevent the diversion and abuse of those substances, in line with the provisions of the international drug control treaties; 11. Invites Member States to ensure that the International Narcotics Control Board and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime are funded adequately, as appropriate, to support their activities to ensure adequate availability of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances for medical and scientific purposes, including the development and implementation of guidelines to assist Governments in estimating their requirements for internationally controlled substances and to address the risk of the diversion and abuse of those substances; 12. Also invites Member States to consider ways to leverage existing health and development programs in countries without adequate availability of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances for medical and scientific purposes, including by building the capacity of those countries through training;

  25. 13. Recognizes that the Internet can offer increased access to information about narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances and can lead to the diversion of those substances, and accordingly invites Member States to consider the implementation of the International Narcotics Control Board Guidelines for Governments on Preventing the Illegal Sale of Internationally Controlled Substances through the Internet.

  26. Commission of Narcotic Drugs • Recalling its resolution 53/4, 12 March 2010 • Report of the International Narcotics Control Board on the Availability of Internationally Controlled Drugs: Ensuring Adequate Access for Medical and Scientific Purposes

  27. Preface: Hamid Ghodse • The international drug control treaties continue to be highly effective in preventing the diversion of drugs from licit to illicit markets and in protecting society from the consequences of dependence. However, in many countries equal attention has not been given to the other objective of the treaties — ensuring the adequate availability of controlled substances. Measures taken by Governments to prevent the abuse of and trafficking in narcotics drugs and psychotropic substances must not hinder the utilization of such drugs for medical treatment. Governments need to meet the dual objective of the international drug control treaties, namely, preventing the diversion and abuse of internationally controlled substances while ensuring their availability for legitimate use. This balance should be reflected in national drug control laws and regulations. • The first step towards improving access to these essential drugs for medical and scientific purposes is to identify the impediments, which are manifold. While economic considerations may play a role with regard to high-cost medications, low cost preparations do exist, and examples of countries making use of such preparations demonstrate that economic impediments can be overcome. Systemic and regulatory problems may lead to inadequate availability of controlled substances.

  28. INCB Action • 1961: Single Convention • 1989: Identified with WHO • “Medical needs for opiates not being fully met” • Fear of Addiction, poor estimates, • Lack of resources, poor professional education • 1994: Effectiveness of Int Drug Control Treaties • Adequate supply of narcotics: not universally met • 1995: Availability of Opioids for medical needs • 1999: Proactive with countries w low estimates • 2004: Country examples (BR, CA, Fr, USA)

  29. Morphine Consumption: 2009

  30. Growth in manufacture of opioids: 1989-2009

  31. Europe (low) average consumption of opioid analgesics, 1997-99 & 2007-09

  32. West Asia: average consumption of opioid analgesics, 1997-99 & 2007-09

  33. INCB: Achieving a balance…. 92.As affirmed in Commission on Narcotic Drugs resolution 53/4, on promoting adequate availability of internationally controlled licit drugs for medical and scientific purposes while preventing their diversion and abuse, the balance between adequate availability of these drugs and prevention of their diversion and abuse is at the core of the international drug control conventions. While in the absence of indicators of appropriate use it is at present not possible to determine what appropriate consumption levels would be in individual countries, let alone at the global level, it is possible to identify consumption levels that appear to be much too low or disproportionately high. 93.In the case of countries with nil or practically nil consumption levels, such indicators for adequate levels are not required, as there can be no doubt as to the inadequacy of availability. The Board considers all levels of consumption of narcotic drugs below 200 S-DDD per million inhabitants per day inadequate. However, this does not imply that levels above 200 S-DDD can be considered adequate as the determination of whether availability of internationally controlled substances required for treatment is sufficient depends on the specific morbidity data.

  34. Main factors affecting the availability of opioids for medical needs

  35. INCB: Positive Examples The Board notes with appreciation that in the past few years, the Governments of a number of countries, including Georgia, Guatemala, Panama, Serbia and Viet Nam, have introduced policy reforms aimed at ensuring adequate access to opioid analgesics. The Governments of those countries and others that are in the initial stages of developing strategies for improving the availability of opioids should provide strong support for the implementation of those strategies. Mechanisms should be in place for monitoring the implementation and the long-term effectiveness of policies to improve access to opioids.

  36. Commission of Narcotic Drugs • Recalling its resolution 53/4, 12 March 2010 • Report of the International Narcotics Control Board on the Availability of Internationally Controlled Drugs: Ensuring Adequate Access for Medical and Scientific Purposes • WHO’s Ensuring Balance in National Policies on Controlled Substances: Guidance for Availability and Accessibility of Controlled Medicines

  37. “ensuring balance opioids” http://www.who.int/medicines/areas/quality_safety/guide_nocp_sanend/en/

  38. Guidelines • Content of drug control legislation & policy • Authorities and their role in the system • Policy planning for availability and accessibility • Healthcare Professionals. • Estimates and statistics. • Procurement • Other

  39. Commission of Narcotic Drugs • Recalling its resolution 53/4, 12 March 2010 • Report of the International Narcotics Control Board on the Availability of Internationally Controlled Drugs: Ensuring Adequate Access for Medical and Scientific Purposes • WHO’s Ensuring Balance in National Policies on Controlled Substances: Guidance for Availability and Accessibility of Controlled Medicines

  40. CND 54/6: 1 • Requests the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, in consultation with the International Narcotics Control Board and the World Health Organization, to review and, where necessary, to update its model laws to ensure that they reflect an appropriate balance between ensuring adequate access to internationally controlled drugs and preventing their diversion and abuse, in line with the provisions of the international drug control conventions;

  41. 54/6: 2 • Also requests the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime to develop a technical guide explaining the revised model laws to support training and awareness-raising activities for its personnel in regional and country offices and to ensure that the model laws are accessible and readily understood by Member States;

  42. 54/6: 3 • Further requests the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime to conduct, for its personnel in regional and country offices, training and awareness-raising activities to promote adequate availability of internationally controlled drugs for medical and scientific purposes while preventing their diversion and abuse;

  43. CND 54/6: 4 • Requests the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime and the International Narcotics Control Board to continue their efforts to ensure the adequate availability of internationally controlled drugs for medical and scientific purposes worldwide, cooperating as appropriate, through the Access to Controlled Medications Program of the World Health Organization, while continuing their activities to prevent diversion and abuse;

  44. Essential Medicines16th edition (updated)2010 WHO Model List 2. ANALGESICS, ANTIPYRETICS, NON-STEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY MEDICINES (NSAIMs), MEDICINES USED TO TREAT GOUT AND DISEASE MODIFYING AGENTS IN RHEUMATOID DISORDERS (DMARDs) 2.1 Non-opioids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medicines (NSAIMs) acetylsalicylic acid Suppository: 50 mg to 150 mg. Tablet: 100 mg to 500 mg. Ibuprofen Tablet: 200 mg; 400 mg. >3 months. paracetamol* Oral liquid: 125 mg/5 ml. Suppository: 100 mg. Tablet: 100 mg to 500 mg. * Not recommended for anti‐inflammatory use due to lack of proven benefit to that effect. 2.2 Opioid analgesics Codeine Tablet: 15 mg (phosphate); 30 mg (phosphate). Morphine Injection: 10 mg (morphine hydrochloride or morphine sulfate) in 1‐ml ampoule. Oral liquid: 10 mg (morphine hydrochloride or morphine sulfate)/5 ml. Tablet: 10 mg (morphine sulfate). Tablet (prolonged release): 10 mg; 30 mg; 60 mg (morphine sulfate)

  45. International Association of Hospice and Palliative CareList of Essential Medicines for Palliative Care (http://www.hospicecare.com/resources/pdf-docs/iahpc-list-em.pdf) • Codeine • Fentanyl, • Methadone, • Morphine (immediate and sustained release), • Oxycodone, • Tramadol NOTE: NO GOVERNMENT SHOULD APPROVE MODIFIED RELEASE MORPHINE, FENTANYL OR OXYCODONE WITHOUT ALSO GUARANTEEING WIDELY AVAILABLE NORMAL RELEASE ORAL MORPHINE.