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FC.63 THE MEDIEVAL AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION AND ITS IMPACT) PowerPoint Presentation
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FC.63 THE MEDIEVAL AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION AND ITS IMPACT)

FC.63 THE MEDIEVAL AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION AND ITS IMPACT)

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FC.63 THE MEDIEVAL AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION AND ITS IMPACT)

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  1. FC.63 THE MEDIEVAL AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION AND ITS IMPACT) Warmer climate better conditions for agric. Viking, Arab & Magyar raids let up by 1000 C.E. Feudalism  more polit. stability (FC.41) More efficient ways to organize fields: Crop rotation using legumes to replenish nitrogen in the soil 3-field system  Plants 2/3 fields  33% more land farmed Less soil exhaustion & more varied & balanced diet Less fallow to plow 2X/yr  More time to develop new farmland Cross breeding  Larger farm horses Heavy plow Cuts deep rich soils of N. Eur. Horse collar  Can pull heavier load from chest Horseshoe  Hooves don’t crack from wet soil No cross-plowing Time to dev. New lands Furrows Some crops after flood or drought Plow horse works 50% faster & 1-2 more hrsr/day Need more draught animals Peasants share plow teams More food Develop new lands Population growth Serfs scatter & divide land in strips  All get at least some land plowed in time Horse’s speed along w/th 4-wheeled wagon 2X area can supply food to towns Able to support revival of towns, trade & kings (FC.64)

  2. Society on the Cusp of the Agricultural Revolution • Self-Sufficient Manors

  3. Society on the Cusp of the Agricultural Revolution • Self-Sufficient Manors • Ag Weaknesses • Scratch Plow • Two-Field System • Low Crop Yields

  4. Society on the Cusp of the Agricultural Revolution • Self-Sufficient Manors • Ag Weaknesses • Scratch Plow • Two-Field System • Low Crop Yields • Potential

  5. A FC.63 THE MEDIEVAL AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION AND ITS IMPACT) Feudalism  more polit. stability (FC.41) Climate?

  6. A FC.63 THE MEDIEVAL AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION AND ITS IMPACT) Warmer climate better conditions for agric. Viking, Arab & Magyar raids? Feudalism  more polit. stability (FC.41)

  7. A FC.63 THE MEDIEVAL AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION AND ITS IMPACT) Warmer climate better conditions for agric. Viking, Arab & Magyar raids let up by 1000 C.E. Feudalism  more polit. stability (FC.41)

  8. A FC.63 THE MEDIEVAL AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION AND ITS IMPACT) Warmer climate better conditions for agric. Viking, Arab & Magyar raids let up by 1000 C.E. Feudalism  more polit. stability (FC.41) More efficient ways to organize fields: Crops? Advantages? Less fallow to plow 2X/yr  More time to develop new farmland No cross-plowing Time to dev. New lands FurrowsSome crops after flood or drought Plow horse works 50% faster & 1-2 more hrsr/day Need more draught animalsPeasants share plow teams

  9. A FC.63 THE MEDIEVAL AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION AND ITS IMPACT) Warmer climate better conditions for agric. Viking, Arab & Magyar raids let up by 1000 C.E. Feudalism  more polit. stability (FC.41) More efficient ways to organize fields: Crop rotation using legumes to replenish nitrogen in the soil Advantages? Less fallow to plow 2X/yr  More time to develop new farmland No cross-plowing Time to dev. New lands FurrowsSome crops after flood or drought Plow horse works 50% faster & 1-2 more hrsr/day Need more draught animalsPeasants share plow teams

  10. A FC.63 THE MEDIEVAL AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION AND ITS IMPACT) Warmer climate better conditions for agric. Viking, Arab & Magyar raids let up by 1000 C.E. Feudalism  more polit. stability (FC.41) More efficient ways to organize fields: Crop rotation using legumes to replenish nitrogen in the soil Less soil exhaustion & more varied & balanced diet Less fallow to plow 2X/yr  More time to develop new farmland No cross-plowing Time to dev. New lands FurrowsSome crops after flood or drought Plow horse works 50% faster & 1-2 more hrsr/day Need more draught animalsPeasants share plow teams

  11. A FC.63 THE MEDIEVAL AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION AND ITS IMPACT) Warmer climate better conditions for agric. Viking, Arab & Magyar raids let up by 1000 C.E. Feudalism  more polit. stability (FC.41) More efficient ways to organize fields: Crop rotation using legumes to replenish nitrogen in the soil 3-field system  Plant how many fields any one year? Less soil exhaustion & more varied & balanced diet Less fallow to plow 2X/yr  More time to develop new farmland No cross-plowing Time to dev. New lands FurrowsSome crops after flood or drought Plow horse works 50% faster & 1-2 more hrsr/day Need more draught animalsPeasants share plow teams

  12. FC.63 THE MEDIEVAL AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION AND ITS IMPACT) Warmer climate better conditions for agric. Viking, Arab & Magyar raids let up by 1000 C.E. Feudalism  more polit. stability (FC.41) More efficient ways to organize fields: Crop rotation using legumes to replenish nitrogen in the soil 3-field system  Plants 2/3 fields  Less soil exhaustion & more varied & balanced diet Less fallow to plow 2X/yr  More time to develop new farmland No cross-plowing Time to dev. New lands FurrowsSome crops after flood or drought Plow horse works 50% faster & 1-2 more hrsr/day Need more draught animalsPeasants share plow teams

  13. Field 1 Field 2 Field 3 Year 1 Spring Winter Fallow Fallow Spring Winter Year2 Year 3 Winter Fallow Spring Spring Winter Fallow Year 4 Winter crop = grain (e.g., wheat) Spring crop = Legume (e.g., peas)

  14. Field 1 Field 2 Field 3 Year 1 Spring Winter Fallow Year2 Fallow Spring Winter Year 3 Winter Fallow Spring Spring Winter Fallow Year 4 Winter crop = grain (e.g., wheat) Spring crop = Legume (e.g., peas)

  15. Field 1 Field 2 Field 3 Year 1 Spring Winter Fallow Year2 Fallow Spring Winter Year 3 Winter Fallow Spring Spring Winter Fallow Year 4 Winter crop = grain (e.g., wheat) Spring crop = Legume (e.g., peas)

  16. Field 1 Field 2 Field 3 Year 1 Spring Winter Fallow Year2 Fallow Spring Winter Year 3 Winter Fallow Spring Spring Winter Fallow Year 4 Winter crop = grain (e.g., wheat) Spring crop = Legume (e.g., peas)

  17. Field 1 Field 2 Field 3 Year 1 Spring Winter Fallow Year2 Fallow Spring Winter Year 3 Winter Fallow Spring Spring Winter Fallow Year 4 Winter crop = grain (e.g., wheat) Spring crop = Legume (e.g., peas)

  18. Field 1 Field 2 Field 3 Year 1 Spring Winter Fallow Yr 2 Fallow Spring Winter Year 3 Winter Fallow Spring Spring Winter Fallow Year 4 Winter crop = grain (e.g., wheat) Spring crop = Legume (e.g., peas)

  19. Field 1 Field 2 Field 3 Year 1 Spring Winter Fallow Yr 2 Fallow Spring Winter Year 3 Winter Fallow Spring Spring Winter Fallow Year 4 Winter crop = grain (e.g., wheat) Spring crop = Legume (e.g., peas)

  20. Field 1 Field 2 Field 3 Year 1 Spring Winter Fallow Yr 2 Fallow Spring Winter Year 3 Winter Fallow Spring Spring Winter Fallow Year 4 Winter crop = grain (e.g., wheat) Spring crop = Legume (e.g., peas)

  21. Field 1 Field 2 Field 3 Year 1 Spring Winter Fallow Yr 2 Fallow Spring Winter Year 3 Winter Fallow Spring Spring Winter Fallow Year 4 Winter crop = grain (e.g., wheat) Spring crop = Legume (e.g., peas)

  22. Field 1 Field 2 Field 3 Year 1 Spring Winter Fallow Yr 2 Fallow Spring Winter Year 3 Winter Fallow Spring Spring Winter Fallow Year 4 Winter crop = grain (e.g., wheat) Spring crop = Legume (e.g., peas)

  23. Field 1 Field 2 Field 3 Year 1 Spring Winter Fallow Yr 2 Fallow Spring Winter Year 3 Winter Fallow Spring Spring Winter Fallow Year 4 Winter crop = grain (e.g., wheat) Spring crop = Legume (e.g., peas)

  24. Field 1 Field 2 Field 3 Year 1 Spring Winter Fallow Yr 2 Fallow Spring Winter Year 3 Winter Fallow Spring Spring Winter Fallow Year 4 Winter crop = grain (e.g., wheat) Spring crop = Legume (e.g., peas)

  25. A FC.63 THE MEDIEVAL AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION AND ITS IMPACT) 60 acres Warmer climate better conditions for agric. Viking, Arab & Magyar raids let up by 1000 C.E. Feudalism  more polit. stability (FC.41) More efficient ways to organize fields: Crop rotation using legumes to replenish nitrogen in the soil 3-field system  Plants 2/3 fields  Two Field system Planted? Fallow? Less soil exhaustion & more varied & balanced diet Less fallow to plow 2X/yr  More time to develop new farmland No cross-plowing Time to dev. New lands FurrowsSome crops after flood or drought Plow horse works 50% faster & 1-2 more hrsr/day Need more draught animalsPeasants share plow teams

  26. A FC.63 THE MEDIEVAL AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION AND ITS IMPACT) 60 acres Warmer climate better conditions for agric. Viking, Arab & Magyar raids let up by 1000 C.E. Feudalism  more polit. stability (FC.41) More efficient ways to organize fields: Crop rotation using legumes to replenish nitrogen in the soil 3-field system  Plants 2/3 fields  Two Field system Planted 30 Fallow 30 Less soil exhaustion & more varied & balanced diet Less fallow to plow 2X/yr  More time to develop new farmland 50% efficiency 3-field system No cross-plowing Time to dev. New lands FurrowsSome crops after flood or drought Spring 20 Winter 20 Fallow 20 Plow horse works 50% faster & 1-2 more hrsr/day Need more draught animalsPeasants share plow teams How many planted & fallow?

  27. A FC.63 THE MEDIEVAL AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION AND ITS IMPACT) 60 acres Warmer climate better conditions for agric. Viking, Arab & Magyar raids let up by 1000 C.E. Feudalism  more polit. stability (FC.41) More efficient ways to organize fields: Crop rotation using legumes to replenish nitrogen in the soil 3-field system  Plants 2/3 fields  Two Field system Planted 30 Fallow 30 Less soil exhaustion & more varied & balanced diet Less fallow to plow 2X/yr  More time to develop new farmland 50% efficiency 3-field system No cross-plowing Time to dev. New lands FurrowsSome crops after flood or drought Spring 20 Winter 20 Fallow 20 Plow horse works 50% faster & 1-2 more hrsr/day Need more draught animalsPeasants share plow teams

  28. A FC.63 THE MEDIEVAL AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION AND ITS IMPACT) 60 acres Warmer climate better conditions for agric. Viking, Arab & Magyar raids let up by 1000 C.E. Feudalism  more polit. stability (FC.41) More efficient ways to organize fields: Crop rotation using legumes to replenish nitrogen in the soil 3-field system  Plants 2/3 fields  Planted 30 Fallow 30 Less soil exhaustion & more varied & balanced diet Less fallow to plow 2X/yr  More time to develop new farmland 50% efficiency 3-field system No cross-plowing Time to dev. New lands FurrowsSome crops after flood or drought • 40 acres crops each year Spring 20 Winter 20 Fallow 20 Plow horse works 50% faster & 1-2 more hrsr/day Need more draught animalsPeasants share plow teams Efficiency?

  29. A FC.63 THE MEDIEVAL AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION AND ITS IMPACT) 60 acres Warmer climate better conditions for agric. Viking, Arab & Magyar raids let up by 1000 C.E. Feudalism  more polit. stability (FC.41) More efficient ways to organize fields: Crop rotation using legumes to replenish nitrogen in the soil 3-field system  Plants 2/3 fields  Planted 30 Fallow 30 Less soil exhaustion & more varied & balanced diet Less fallow to plow 2X/yr  More time to develop new farmland 50% efficiency 3-field system No cross-plowing Time to dev. New lands FurrowsSome crops after flood or drought 40 acres crops each year  67% efficiency Spring 20 Winter 20 Fallow 20 Plow horse works 50% faster & 1-2 more hrsr/day Need more draught animalsPeasants share plow teams How many more crops?

  30. A FC.63 THE MEDIEVAL AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION AND ITS IMPACT) 60 acres Warmer climate better conditions for agric. Viking, Arab & Magyar raids let up by 1000 C.E. Feudalism  more polit. stability (FC.41) More efficient ways to organize fields: Crop rotation using legumes to replenish nitrogen in the soil 3-field system  Plants 2/3 fields  Planted 30 Fallow 30 Less soil exhaustion & more varied & balanced diet Less fallow to plow 2X/yr  More time to develop new farmland 50% efficiency 3-field system No cross-plowing Time to dev. New lands FurrowsSome crops after flood or drought 40 acres crops each year  67% efficiency  33% more crops Spring 20 Winter 20 Fallow 20 Plow horse works 50% faster & 1-2 more hrsr/day Need more draught animalsPeasants share plow teams

  31. A FC.63 THE MEDIEVAL AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION AND ITS IMPACT) Warmer climate better conditions for agric. Viking, Arab & Magyar raids let up by 1000 C.E. Feudalism  more polit. stability (FC.41) How much plowing do you have to do? More efficient ways to organize fields: Crop rotation using legumes to replenish nitrogen in the soil 3-field system  Plants 2/3 fields  33% more land farmed Less soil exhaustion & more varied & balanced diet Less fallow to plow 2X/yr  More time to develop new farmland No cross-plowing Time to dev. New lands FurrowsSome crops after flood or drought Plow horse works 50% faster & 1-2 more hrsr/day Need more draught animalsPeasants share plow teams

  32. A FC.63 THE MEDIEVAL AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION AND ITS IMPACT) Warmer climate better conditions for agric. Viking, Arab & Magyar raids let up by 1000 C.E. Feudalism  more polit. stability (FC.41) More efficient ways to organize fields: Crop rotation using legumes to replenish nitrogen in the soil 3-field system  Plants 2/3 fields  33% more land farmed How do you use that extra time? Less soil exhaustion & more varied & balanced diet Less fallow to plow 2X/yr  More time to develop new farmland No cross-plowing Time to dev. New lands FurrowsSome crops after flood or drought Plow horse works 50% faster & 1-2 more hrsr/day Need more draught animalsPeasants share plow teams

  33. A FC.63 THE MEDIEVAL AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION AND ITS IMPACT) Warmer climate better conditions for agric. Viking, Arab & Magyar raids let up by 1000 C.E. Feudalism  more polit. stability (FC.41) More efficient ways to organize fields: Crop rotation using legumes to replenish nitrogen in the soil 3-field system  Plants 2/3 fields  33% more land farmed Less soil exhaustion & more varied & balanced diet Less fallow to plow 2X/yr  More time to develop new farmland No cross-plowing Time to dev. New lands FurrowsSome crops after flood or drought Plow horse works 50% faster & 1-2 more hrsr/day Need more draught animalsPeasants share plow teams

  34. A FC.63 THE MEDIEVAL AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION AND ITS IMPACT) Warmer climate better conditions for agric. Viking, Arab & Magyar raids let up by 1000 C.E. Feudalism  more polit. stability (FC.41) More efficient ways to organize fields: Crop rotation using legumes to replenish nitrogen in the soil 3-field system  Plants 2/3 fields  33% more land farmed Less soil exhaustion & more varied & balanced diet Less fallow to plow 2X/yr  More time to develop new farmland Heavy plow No cross-plowing Time to dev. New lands FurrowsSome crops after flood or drought Plow horse works 50% faster & 1-2 more hrsr/day Need more draught animalsPeasants share plow teams

  35. The wooden scratch plow that was suited for the thinner soils of the Middle East and Mediterranean

  36. A FC.63 THE MEDIEVAL AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION AND ITS IMPACT) Warmer climate better conditions for agric. Viking, Arab & Magyar raids let up by 1000 C.E. Feudalism  more polit. stability (FC.41) More efficient ways to organize fields: Crop rotation using legumes to replenish nitrogen in the soil 3-field system  Plants 2/3 fields  33% more land farmed Less soil exhaustion & more varied & balanced diet Less fallow to plow 2X/yr  More time to develop new farmland Heavy plow Cuts deep rich soils of N. Eur. No cross-plowing Time to dev. New lands FurrowsSome crops after flood or drought Plow horse works 50% faster & 1-2 more hrsr/day Need more draught animalsPeasants share plow teams

  37. A FC.63 THE MEDIEVAL AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION AND ITS IMPACT) Warmer climate better conditions for agric. Viking, Arab & Magyar raids let up by 1000 C.E. Feudalism  more polit. stability (FC.41) More efficient ways to organize fields: Crop rotation using legumes to replenish nitrogen in the soil 3-field system  Plants 2/3 fields  33% more land farmed Less soil exhaustion & more varied & balanced diet Less fallow to plow 2X/yr  More time to develop new farmland Heavy plow Cuts deep rich soils of N. Eur. No cross-plowing Time to dev. New lands FurrowsSome crops after flood or drought Plow horse works 50% faster & 1-2 more hrsr/day Need more draught animalsPeasants share plow teams

  38. A FC.63 THE MEDIEVAL AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION AND ITS IMPACT) Warmer climate better conditions for agric. Viking, Arab & Magyar raids let up by 1000 C.E. Feudalism  more polit. stability (FC.41) More efficient ways to organize fields: Crop rotation using legumes to replenish nitrogen in the soil 3-field system  Plants 2/3 fields  33% more land farmed Less soil exhaustion & more varied & balanced diet Less fallow to plow 2X/yr  More time to develop new farmland Heavy plow Cuts deep rich soils of N. Eur. No cross-plowing Time to dev. New lands Furrows Some crops after flood or drought Plow horse works 50% faster & 1-2 more hrsr/day Need more draught animalsPeasants share plow teams

  39. A FC.63 THE MEDIEVAL AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION AND ITS IMPACT) Warmer climate better conditions for agric. Viking, Arab & Magyar raids let up by 1000 C.E. Feudalism  more polit. stability (FC.41) More efficient ways to organize fields: Crop rotation using legumes to replenish nitrogen in the soil 3-field system  Plants 2/3 fields  33% more land farmed Less soil exhaustion & more varied & balanced diet Less fallow to plow 2X/yr  More time to develop new farmland Heavy plow Cuts deep rich soils of N. Eur. No cross-plowing Time to dev. New lands Furrows Some crops after flood or drought Plow horse works 50% faster & 1-2 more hrsr/day Need more draught animalsPeasants share plow teams

  40. A FC.63 THE MEDIEVAL AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION AND ITS IMPACT) Warmer climate better conditions for agric. Viking, Arab & Magyar raids let up by 1000 C.E. Feudalism  more polit. stability (FC.41) More efficient ways to organize fields: Crop rotation using legumes to replenish nitrogen in the soil 3-field system  Plants 2/3 fields  33% more land farmed Less soil exhaustion & more varied & balanced diet Less fallow to plow 2X/yr  More time to develop new farmland Heavy plow Cuts deep rich soils of N. Eur. No cross-plowing Time to dev. New lands Furrows Some crops after flood or drought Plow horse works 50% faster & 1-2 more hrsr/day Need more draught animals What do peasant do?

  41. A FC.63 THE MEDIEVAL AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION AND ITS IMPACT) Warmer climate better conditions for agric. Viking, Arab & Magyar raids let up by 1000 C.E. Feudalism  more polit. stability (FC.41) More efficient ways to organize fields: Crop rotation using legumes to replenish nitrogen in the soil 3-field system  Plants 2/3 fields  33% more land farmed Less soil exhaustion & more varied & balanced diet Less fallow to plow 2X/yr  More time to develop new farmland Heavy plow Cuts deep rich soils of N. Eur. No cross-plowing Time to dev. New lands Furrows Some crops after flood or drought Plow horse works 50% faster & 1-2 more hrsr/day Need more draught animals Peasants share plow teams So whose land gets plowed first?

  42. A FC.63 THE MEDIEVAL AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION AND ITS IMPACT) Warmer climate better conditions for agric. Viking, Arab & Magyar raids let up by 1000 C.E. Feudalism  more polit. stability (FC.41) More efficient ways to organize fields: Crop rotation using legumes to replenish nitrogen in the soil 3-field system  Plants 2/3 fields  33% more land farmed Less soil exhaustion & more varied & balanced diet Less fallow to plow 2X/yr  More time to develop new farmland Heavy plow Cuts deep rich soils of N. Eur. No cross-plowing Time to dev. New lands Furrows Some crops after flood or drought Plow horse works 50% faster & 1-2 more hrsr/day Need more draught animals Peasants share plow teams Serfs scatter & divide land in strips  All get at least some land plowed in time

  43. A FC.63 THE MEDIEVAL AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION AND ITS IMPACT) Warmer climate better conditions for agric. Viking, Arab & Magyar raids let up by 1000 C.E. Feudalism  more polit. stability (FC.41) More efficient ways to organize fields: Crop rotation using legumes to replenish nitrogen in the soil 3-field system  Plants 2/3 fields  33% more land farmed Less soil exhaustion & more varied & balanced diet Less fallow to plow 2X/yr  More time to develop new farmland Heavy plow Cuts deep rich soils of N. Eur. No cross-plowing Time to dev. New lands Furrows Some crops after flood or drought Plow horse works 50% faster & 1-2 more hrsr/day Need more draught animals Peasants share plow teams Serfs scatter & divide land in strips  All get at least some land plowed in time

  44. A FC.63 THE MEDIEVAL AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION AND ITS IMPACT) Warmer climate better conditions for agric. Viking, Arab & Magyar raids let up by 1000 C.E. Feudalism  more polit. stability (FC.41) More efficient ways to organize fields: Crop rotation using legumes to replenish nitrogen in the soil 3-field system  Plants 2/3 fields  33% more land farmed Less soil exhaustion & more varied & balanced diet Less fallow to plow 2X/yr  More time to develop new farmland Horses? Heavy plow Cuts deep rich soils of N. Eur. No cross-plowing Time to dev. New lands Furrows Some crops after flood or drought Plow horse works 50% faster & 1-2 more hrsr/day Need more draught animals Peasants share plow teams Serfs scatter & divide land in strips  All get at least some land plowed in time

  45. A FC.63 THE MEDIEVAL AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION AND ITS IMPACT) Warmer climate better conditions for agric. Viking, Arab & Magyar raids let up by 1000 C.E. Feudalism  more polit. stability (FC.41) More efficient ways to organize fields: Crop rotation using legumes to replenish nitrogen in the soil 3-field system  Plants 2/3 fields  33% more land farmed Less soil exhaustion & more varied & balanced diet Less fallow to plow 2X/yr  More time to develop new farmland Cross breeding  Larger farm horses Heavy plow Cuts deep rich soils of N. Eur. Collar? No cross-plowing Time to dev. New lands Furrows Some crops after flood or drought Plow horse works 50% faster & 1-2 more hrsr/day Need more draught animals Peasants share plow teams Serfs scatter & divide land in strips  All get at least some land plowed in time

  46. A FC.63 THE MEDIEVAL AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION AND ITS IMPACT) Warmer climate better conditions for agric. Viking, Arab & Magyar raids let up by 1000 C.E. Feudalism  more polit. stability (FC.41) More efficient ways to organize fields: Crop rotation using legumes to replenish nitrogen in the soil 3-field system  Plants 2/3 fields  33% more land farmed Less soil exhaustion & more varied & balanced diet Less fallow to plow 2X/yr  More time to develop new farmland Cross breeding  Larger farm horses Heavy plow Cuts deep rich soils of N. Eur. Hooves? Horse collar  Can pull heavier load from chest No cross-plowing Time to dev. New lands Furrows Some crops after flood or drought Plow horse works 50% faster & 1-2 more hrsr/day Need more draught animals Peasants share plow teams Serfs scatter & divide land in strips  All get at least some land plowed in time